The Road Design Standards are established pursuant to the provisions of Article 32, Paragraph 1 of the Urban Road Act.
Definition of the terms referred in the Road Design Standards:
1. Traffic lane: refers to sections of the road defined by markings or solid objects and other road spaces provided for other vehicle passage.
2. Walkways: refers to road sections allocated for pedestrian passage, overpasses, and pedestrian underpasses.
3. Public facility belt: refers to areas designated for public facilities or planting in the walkways or median islands.
4. Traffic calming zones: refers to certain roads or road sections where vehicles are prohibited from blowing horns or where vehicle speed is limited; moreover, speed reducing facilities are installed.
5. Express ways: refers to arterial roads that provide through traffic across a city or through traffic within a city with full or partial entrance and exit controls.
6. Main roads: refer to arterial provincial highways, city highways, county highways, district highways, and township roads running within a city or connecting with neighboring cities (towns or districts) roads.
7. Secondary roads: refer to secondary trunk roads connecting with main roads and service roads running within a city or connecting with ....
8. Service roads: refers to inner city community roads or connecting roads of secondary roads.
Urban roads are classified into express ways, main roads, secondary roads, and service roads based on functions; they form the urban road network system.
Design regulations of expressway plans:
1. Expressways connect to other urban roads by means of ramps or grade separations. However, upon the approval of the competent authority, level crossing intersection between expressways and main roads or secondary roads may be implemented; pertinent traffic signs shall be installed to institute proper traffic control.
2. Solid dividers shall be installed on two-way roads; road width on each side of the divider shall have at least two lanes.
3. No level crossing with railways or track transportation facilities shall be allowed.
4. Where both sides of the expressways are adjacent to parallel roads,solid or grade separations shall be constructed.
Design and planning regulations of main roads:
1. Pedestrian lanes should be to reserved to foster a friendly and safe urban environment.
2. Road design must pay close attention to the landscape, strive for beautification, and public facilities should be reserved.
3. Traffic lane may be provided pursuant to the nature of road traffic and actual conditions of the road.
4. Where main road level crosses another main road or secondary road, proper traffic control signs shall be installed; where main road level crosses a service road, make sure that the service road does not cross a median divider or fast and slow lane divider. However, where such crossing is authorized by the competent authorities, proper traffic control sign(s) shall be installed at the intersection of the level crossing.
Design and planning regulations of service roads:
1. To improve the space for pedestrian passage, sidewalks should be left on the road. But if the road is less than 12 meters in width and there are smooth arcades or sidewalks without eaves beside the road, sidewalks may be built according to actual needs.
2. Pedestrian malls or traffic calming zones may be constructed pursuant to actual urban development, traffic characteristic and road condition requirements.
3. Pursuant to actual traffic requirements, some service roads located in downtown areas and dense residential areas shall be designated as one-way roads
The following survey and analyses shall be conducted for design and planning of urban roads and accessory works based on actual requirements of circumstances:
1. Terrain and geological survey and analysis,
2. Land use survey and analysis,
3. Traffic characteristic survey and traffic volume forecast analysis,
4. Public facility survey and analysis.
5. Other surveys and analysis required by the competent authorities.
Design speed of urban roads is determined pursuant to the road type and function, terrain category and the following regulations. However, in the event of special changes in road terrain, design speed may be adjusted pursuant to the approval of the competent authority.
│Road type and │Express │Main │Secondary │Service │
│function Design │ways │roads │roads │roads │
│Speed (KM/HR) │ │ │ │ │
│terrain category │ │ │ │ │
│ Plain │60 - 100│50 - 80 │40 - 70 │20 - 50 │
│ Hill │60 - 80 │50 - 70 │40 - 60 │20 - 40 │
│Mountain ridge │50 - 60 │40 - 50 │30 - 40 │20 - 30 │
Regulations governing alignment designs of urban roads:
1. The horizontal alignment design shall be coordinated with the promulgated urban planning.
2. The design speed determines the minimum radius of the horizontal curve of the horizontal alignment.
3. The longitudinal gradient shall match the changes in the site terrain and design speed.
4. The cross slope of the straight section of the lane shall not exceed 4%; maximum cant of the curved section shall not exceed 8%.
Lane width regulations of urban roads:
1. Car lane width is determined based on the design speed. For expressway roads, minimum lane width is 3.25 meters; for main roads and secondary roads, minimum lane width is 3 meters, for service roads, minimum lane width is 2.8 meters.
2. Minimum lane width of motorcycle lanes is 1.5 meters.
3. Minimum lane width of bicycle lanes or bikeways is 1.2 meters.
4. The minimum lane width of bus lanes is 3 meters; however, minimum lane width for bus lanes in bus stops is 3 meters.
5. Thewidth of a slow lane shall not be less than 2 meters. However, if the road width isinsufficient, the width of a slow lane width shall not be less than 1.5 meters.
Curb parking lot design regulations for urban roads:
1. If there is a need for parking on the road and the width of the shoulder is more than two meters, priority shall be given to the planning of curb parking spaces. The curb parking lots are likewise governed by the Parking Lot Laws. Curb parking spaces shall not be allotted in traffic lanes.
2. No curb parking spaces shall be placed in road sections where traffic service level is rated class E or lower.
3. Where slope gradient of the road is greater than 7%, no curb parking spaces shall be placed.
4. When allocating curb parking spaces, parking spaces for cars, motorcycles, bicycles, or bikes shall be defined pursuant to the rules in Parking Facility Act and Regulation governing the establishment of traffic signs and traffic markings for roadways and actual parking requirements.
5. Curb parking in the form of parking bays may be installed in publicfacility areas.
The urban road level crossing design regulations:
1. The minimum angle of the level crossing of main roads against main roads or secondary roads shall be 60 degrees.
2. The minimum width of dedicated "left turn only" and "right turn only" lanes shall be 2.7 meters.
3. Level crossing control measures shall be defined pursuant to traffic engineering facilities or traffic control provisions.
Regulations governing the urban road grade separation crossing structural designs:
1. The lateral clearance between the outside wall of urban road grade separation crossing structures and outside wall of building structures shall be at least 4.5 meters for grade separation structures and at least 3 meters for ramp structures.
2. Height clearance of the grade separation crossing over the underlying road shall be at least 4.6 meters. Grade separation crossing sections where large vehicles are prohibited from entering shall have height clearance of at least 0.5 meters added to the height of largest vehicles; moreover, height limiting or warning devices shall be installed.
3. Where level side lanes are constructed, lane width shall be at least 3 meters; moreover, space for U-turn lane shall be allocated.
Regulations governing the urban road paving designs:
1. The type of road and sidewalk paving design (flexible pavement, rigid pavement or others) employed shall provide for the driving comfort of passengers and walking comfort of pedestrians; moreover pavement quality shall meet maintenance requirements.
2. Road pavement thickness is determined based on the volume of road traffic, the design service life of the road and the roadbed soil conditions.
3. Lane pavements shall be constructed using environmental friendly, recycled materials; walkway pavements shall be constructed using permeable materials.
Walkway design regulations for urban roads:
1. The width of the walkway is determined by the volume of pedestrian traffic. The minimum width of sidewalks for pedestrians shall be at least 1.5 meters. However, if the width of the road is less than 12 meters, the net width of the sidewalk may not be less than 1.2 meters. If in road sections where road width is limited with road status, the net width of the sidewalk shall be at least 0.9 meters, if consented by the competent authorities.
2. Where bicycles or bikes are allowed to pass through pedestrian walkways, space design shall not obstruct passage of pedestrians.
3. Longitudinal slope gradient shall not exceed 12% and shall be consistent with the longitudinal slop gradient of the road. Where it is not possible to coordinate sidewalk gradient with road gradient, a different design may be made. Cross slope shall not exceed 5%.
4. The height clearance of the pedestrian passage spaces of walkways shall be at least 2.1 meters.
5. Height of sidewalk curbs shall not exceed 0.15 meter. Curbs constructed as driving guides shall not exceed 0.2 meter. Where crosswalk junctions or areas having different terrains, a slope may be constructed to accommodate the elevation changes.
6. Inprinciple, no vehicle parking spaces are established on sidewalks. If there isa need for motor scooter parking, priority should be given to the establishmentof parking bays. If vehicle parking space is set up on sidewalks, it should be consentedto by the competent authorities and the net width for pedestrians after markingthe parking space shall not be less than 1.5 meters.
Design regulations for urban road overpasses and pedestrian underpasses:
1. The width of the passage way of overpasses and pedestrian underpasses and the width of the entrance and exit ways shall be at least 1.5 meters. Where entrance or exit is located on a walkway or sidewalk, passage way width after construction shall satisfy the minimum clear width requirement provided in Paragraph 1 of the preceding article.
2. The height clearance of the overpass ceiling and the pedestrian underpass interior space shall be at least 2.1 meters.
3. Where the entrance and exit of overpasses and pedestrian underpasses having a gradual slope construction, the gradient shall not exceed 12%.
4. Hand rails shall be installed in the slope walkway and stairs, means to prevent slipping shall also be provided.
In order to ensure the safety of pedestrians, bicycle riders, bikers and motorists, every level of the competent authorities may dedicate traffic calming zones or pedestrian malls in commercial areas, residential areas, school areas and other necessary areas where service roads pass through.
Regulations governing the public facility belt design of urban roads:
1. The width of the public facility belt is equivalent to the maximum width of the public facility and greenery area of the road section.
2. Spaces shall be allotted for greenery planting, street lights and street furniture of the road.
3. The public facility belt shall likewise contain public facilities for traffic,firefighting and pipeline systems.
Regulations governing the barrier-free facility designs of urban roads:
1. The barrier-free facilities of roads have a continuous design; placement of objects obstructing pedestrian passage in these areas is prohibited.
2. Where slopes are required in barrier-free passages, gradient of slope shall not exceed a ratio of 1:12. Clear width of the sloping path shall be at least 0.9 meter.
3. Where the entrance and exit areas of overpasses and pedestrian underpasses are not in the same level as the road surface, a warning area shall be constructed to warn pedestrians of elevation change.
4. Where the barrier-free passage leads into a crosswalk at the intersection of a road, passage shall be in the same level as the road surface or a slope shall be constructed in the juncture.
Regulations governing the landscape designs of urban roads:
1. Landscape designs shall be identical to local culture and accommodate the ecological environment, land usage and purposes of the road.
2. Street furniture shall be integrated, simple, and easy to maintain.
3. The plant arrangements along roads shall not obstruct vision of motorists and pose hazards to road safety.
4. Plant pit sizes shall be based on the type of plants. As much as possible a continuous greenery design shall be employed. The size of the pits for planting trees shall be at least 1.5 square meters while also taking into account the space for the trees to grow out.
Regulations governing urban road bridge designs:
1. The bridge lane construction shall match the level lanes at both ends of the bridge.
2. Under bridge structural safety permitting, the dimensions of the bridge shall be minimized, and the design shall coordinated with the theme and landscape of the surrounding environment.
Regulations governing the tunnel designs of urban roads:
1. The clear width of the tunnel cross section for tunnels equipped with single lanes shall be at least 5 meters; for tunnels equipped with double lanes, clear width shall be at least 7 meters. Clear width of the maintenance pathway shall be at least 0.7 meter.
2. The perpendicular clearance of the tunnel lane shall be at least 4.6 meters; where entry of large vehicles is prohibited, height clearance shall beat least 0.5 meters added to the height of largest vehicles; moreover, height limiting or warning devices shall be installed at the tunnel entrances.
3. Drainage, ventilation and lighting facilities, traffic monitor and safety facilities shall be constructed or installed pursuant to requirements.
Regulations governing the drainage designs of urban roads:
1. Where rainwater drainage systems have been planned prior to the construction of new urban roads or road expansions, please refer to existing plans and design of system. Where no rainwater drainage systems have been planned, appropriate drainage facilities shall be designed, the capacity of which shall be able to accommodate the amount of rainwater catchment area on the road surface.
2. A gravitational drainage system shall be employed. However, pumps may be installed in road sections where elevation makes such system non-viable.
Regulations governing the designs of urban road traffic control islands:
1. The design shall meet driving guide, motorist safety, and pedestrian safety requirements.
2. Width of the divider shall be at least 0.5 meter; where public facilities are constructed on divider, minimum width of divider shall be at least 0.8 meter.
3. Area of the channelizing island shall be at least 5 square meters.
Regulations governing urban road signs, markings and sign construction:
1. The expressways and main roads shall comply with the traffic control or intelligent transportation system requirements. Necessary signs markings and signage facilities or spaces shall be installed or provided.
2. The urban road sign, marking line and signage systems shall be coordinated with the traffic characteristics and general traffic control plan of the area. Regular general evaluations and improvement actions shall be conducted.
Regulations governing urban road lighting facility designs:
1. Illumination of lighting facilities shall be determined based on road classification, land use conditions alongside the road, and pedestrian safety requirements.
2. Uniform lighting equipment shall be used for the entire length of a road section; moreover, lighting equipment design shall be coordinated with street furniture and surrounding environment of the road.
Under any one of the following circumstances, the entirety or a portion of the Road Design Standards regulations may not be applicable to the urban road in question:
1. Urban roads under the jurisdiction of Kinmen County and Lienchiang County.
2. The improvement, broadening, repair and maintenance of existing urban roads upon the approval of the local competent authority.
3. Urban roads located in special terrains upon approval of the central competent authority.
Design specifications for urban road and accessory works are subject to the establishment of the central competent authorities.
The Road Design Standards shall take effect immediately upon promulgation.