Chapter XIII. Fundamental National Policies
Section 5. Education and Culture
Education and culture shall aim at the development among the citizens of the national spirit, the spirit of self-government, national morality, good physique, scientific knowledge, and the ability to earn a living.
All citizens shall have equal opportunity to receive an education.
All children of school age from six to 12 years shall receive free primary education. Those from poor families shall be supplied with books by the Government.
All citizens above school age who have not received primary education shall receive supplementary education free of charge and shall also be supplied with books by the Government.
The national, provincial, and local governments shall extensively establish scholarships to assist students of good scholastic standing and exemplary conduct who lack the means to continue their school education.
All public and private educational and cultural institutions in the country shall, in accordance with law, be subject to State supervision.
The State shall pay due attention to the balanced development of education in different regions, and shall promote social education in order to raise the cultural standard of the citizens in general. Grants from the National Treasury shall be made to frontier regions and economically poor areas to help them meet their educational and cultural expenses. The Central Government may either itself undertake the more important educational and cultural enterprises in such regions or give them financial assistance.
Expenditures of educational programs, scientific studies and cultural services shall not be, in respect of the Central Government, less than 15 percent of the total national budget; in respect of each province, less than 25 percent of the total provincial budgets; and in respect of each municipality or hsien, less than 35 percent of the total municipal or hsien budget. Educational and cultural foundations established in accordance with law shall, together with their property, be protected.
The State shall safeguard the livelihood of those who work in the fields of education, sciences and arts, and shall, in accordance with the development of national economy, increase their remuneration from time to time.
The State shall encourage scientific discoveries and inventions, and shall protect ancient sites and articles of historical, cultural or artistic value.
The State shall give encouragement or subsidies to the following enterprises or individuals:
1. Educational enterprises in the country which have been operated with good record by private individuals;
2. Educational enterprises which have been operated with good record by Chinese citizens residing abroad;
3. persons who have made discoveries or inventions in the fields of learning and technology; and
4. Persons who have rendered long and meritorious services in the field of education.