Chapter I General Principles
The present Act is enacted in order to protect against the detriment of ionizing radiation and to maintain the health and safety of our citizens, all in accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. Situations not covered by the present Act are to be dealt with according to the provisions of other relevant codes.
The terms used in this Act are defined as follows:
(1)Ionizing radiation refers to electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation that directly or indirectly causes ionization of any material.
(2)Radioactivity refers to the phenomenon of emitting ionizing radiation when a radionuclide spontaneously disintegrates.
(3)Radioactive material refers to material that may emit ionizing radiation by spontaneous nuclear transformation.
(4)Equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation refers to the equipment apart from nuclear reactor facilities capable of producing ionizing radiation by such means as electromagnetic fields, or nuclear reactions.
(5)Radioactive waste refers to waste that is radioactive or is contaminated with radioactive material, including the spent nuclear fuel pending final disposal.
(6)Radiation source refers to a source that produces or is capable of producing ionizing radiation, including radioactive material, equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation, nuclear reactors, and other material or apparatus designated or announced by the Competent Authority.
(7)Background radiation refers to the following types of ionizing radiation:
(b)ionizing radiation emitted by naturally occurring radioactive material which naturally exists in the Earth's crust or the atmosphere;
(c)ionizing radiation emitted by naturally occurring radioactive material generally contained in ordinary human body tissues; and
(d)ionizing radiation emitted by global fallout containing radioactive material arising from nuclear testing or other reasons.
(8)Exposure refers to the process whereby the human body is exposed to irradiation by ionizing radiation, or contact with, or the intake of radioactive material.
(9)Occupational exposure refers to the exposure that incurs from practices.
(10)Medical exposure refers to the exposure of patients and their helpers to ionizing radiation in the course of diagnosis or treatment.
(11)Emergency exposure refers to systematic exposure which is voluntarily received in order to rescue lives of persons in danger and to prevent the worsening of a situation, or other emergencies during and after the occurrence of an accident.
(12)Practice refers to any human activity that introduces new radiation sources or exposure pathways, or enlarges the scope of worker exposure, or changes the exposure pathways of existing radiation sources, thereby leading to either exposure of people or an increase in the number of people subject to exposure, for the purpose of obtaining a net benefit. Practice includes the work of possession, manufacturing, production, installation, modification, use, handling, maintenance, dismantling, inspection, treatment, import, export, sale, transport, storage, transfer, leasing, transit, intermediary trade, discarding, or disposal of radiation sources and others designated or announced by the Competent Authority.
(13)Intervention refers to the measures that are taken to affect exposure pathways between existing radiation sources and the persons exposed, for the purpose of reducing individual or collective exposure.
(14)Facility operator refers to a person who operates a business connected with practice and who is permitted or licensed by the Competent Authority, or is registered with the Competent Authority.
(15)Employer refers to a person who employs workers to engage in a business connected with practice.
(16)Radiation workers are to employed or self-employed persons who frequently engage in practice and are aware that they may be subject to exposure. (17) Sievert / Sv refers to the SI unit of personal dose.
(18)Dose limit refers to the maximum allowable dose arising from exposure received by a worker in practice.
(19)Contaminating the environment refers to practice-related activities changing the amount of radioactive material in air, water, or soil thereby affecting its normal use in a way that jeopardizing the natural ecology, or damaging property.
The Competent Authority in this Act is the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of the Executive Yuan.
Exceptions for Natural Radiation
The provisions of the Act do not apply to naturally occurring radioactive material, background radiation, and their exposure herein. Provided there is a threat to public safety, the Competent Authority may take them under its jurisdiction by the procedure of announcement and the regulations shall be laid down by the Competent Authority.