Chapter I General Principles
This Act is enacted to improve the geological survey system, to effectively manage geological data of national land, and to establish basic geological information related to changes in the nation’s environment and to land resources management.
For the purposes of this Act, the term “competent authority” means the Ministry of Economic Affairs at the central government level, the special municipality at the municipal level, or the county/city government at the county/city level.
The special terms used in this Act are defined as follows:
1. Geology—The term “geology” means the materials constituting the earth, the natural processes arising out of the earth’s evolution, as well as the landforms, landscapes, phenomena, and environments created by the natural processes.
2. Geological hazard—The term “geological hazard” means natural or human-induced earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, fault activity, landslide, debris flow, land subsidence, coastal change, or disaster induced by geological processes.
3. Basic geological survey—The term ”basic geological survey” means a geological survey conducted for the purpose of establishing regional geological database and compiling geological maps.
4. Geological resources survey—The term “geological resources survey” means a geological survey for energy, ore deposits, soil and rock materials, surface water, groundwater, and other resources.
5. Geological hazards survey—The term “geological hazards survey” means a geological survey conducted for the purpose of establishing geological database related to geological hazards, assessing potential geological hazards, and preventing geological hazards.
6. Geological Site investigation—The term “geological site investigation” means a geological investigation of a region of interest in relation for a specific purpose.
7. Land development activity—The term “land development” means resource development, land development and utilization, engineering construction, waste disposal, natural hazard remediation, or legally required planning, design, and construction in connection with land development.
8. Geological data management—The term “geological data management” means the collection, entry, collation, cataloging, storage, search and inquiry, publication, and circulation of materials obtained in geological surveys in various forms including records, text, images, maps, photographs, drilled cores and samples.