Part 3 Fire Safety Equipments
Chapter 1 Fire Extinguishing Equipments
Section 5 Foam Fire Extinguishing Equipments
Any of the following spraying patterns of foam fire extinguishing equipments may be selected according to the actual circumstance:
1.Fixed: Foam outlet shall be equipped pursuant to the shape, construction, quantity and property of the protected object. The quantity and location of outlets and spraying amount shall be able to ensure effective fire extinguishing.
2.Movable: The distance from water hose connector to any point of the protected object shall be not more than 15m.
Proper foam outlet shall be selected for fixed foam fire extinguishing equipments according to the actual expansion ratio of foam and the table below:
│Expansion ratio │Type of foam outlet │
│<20 (Low frothing) │Foam nozzle or foam-water nozzle│
│80≦R≦1,000 │High frothing outlet │
│(High frothing) │ │
The above-mentioned expansion ratio refers to the ratio of the frothed cubage of foam to the cubage of foam-water solution required by frothing.
Foam nozzle shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Foam-water nozzle shall be used in hangar and other places, and at least one nozzle shall be equipped for every 8m2 of floor area, thus covering the protected objects in the effective range.
2.Foam nozzle shall be used in garage, indoor parking area and other places, and at least one nozzle shall be equipped for every 9m2 of floor area, thus covering the protected objects in the effective range.
3.The horizontal distance from any point of the spraying area to the foam nozzle shall be not more than 2.1m.
4.Where there are beams aside, foam nozzle may be equipped pursuant to 47.1(7).
5.Where there are multi-level parking facilities in an indoor parking area, the mounting surface of the top level shall be equipped with foam nozzle, and matching pipe shall be extended to between the vehicles, enabling the nozzle to give off foam toward the lower parking platform. But it is allowable that matching pipe for sensing nozzle is not extended.
6.Where foam nozzle for the above-mentioned multi-level parking facilities can’t be equipped on parking platforms other than the top level due to the construction, the matching pipe shall form an individual unit pursuant to the parking construction, and foam nozzles shall be equipped around to spray foam to the whole ambient area.
The output value of foam nozzle shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Output value of foam-water nozzle shall be not less than 75 l/min.
2.Output value of foam nozzle shall be in accordance with the table below:
Type of foam raw liquid Output value for every square meter of floor area (l/min)
Protein foam solution≧6.5
Synthetic foam solution ≧8
Aqueous film foam solution≧3.7
High frothing outlet shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Where total flooding is used, the following shall be observed, and the opening of the protected area shall be automatically closed before foam water solution is sprayed. However, it is allowable that automatic closing device is not equipped where the leakage at the opening can be made up effectively.
(1)Output value of foam water solution for high frothing outlet shall be calculated following the table below:
│Protected │Type of expansion │Output value of foam water │
│object │ratio │solution for every cube/min │
│ │ │of cubage covered by foam │
│ │ │(L) │
│Hangar │80≦R<250 │ 2 │
│ │(hereinafter │ │
│ │referred to as │ │
│ │Type I) │ │
│ │250≦R<500 │ 0.5 │
│ │(hereinafter │ │
│ │referred to as │ │
│ │Type II) │ │
│ │500≦R<1000 │ 0.29 │
│ │(hereinafter │ │
│ │referred to as │ │
│ │Type III) │ │
│ Indoor │Type I │ 1.11 │
│ parking ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ area or │Type II │ 0.28 │
│ garage ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ │Type III │ 0.16 │
│ Places │Type I │ 1.25 │
│ listed ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ in │Type II │ 0.31 │
│ Article ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ 18.8 │Type III │ 0.18 │
(2)The above-mentioned cubage covered by foam refers to that cubage surrounded from the floor of the protected object to 0.05m above the highest point of the protected object.
(3)Where high frothing outlets are located in the protected area, at least one outlet that is able to spray this area shall be equipped for every 500m2 of the floor area, and a stopping device shall be attached to the outlet.
(4)The location of high frothing outlet shall be higher than the highest point of the protected object.
(5)Where the location of the protected object is more than 5m above the floor and high frothing outlets are used, total flooding shall be employed.
2.Where local application is used, the following provisions shall be observed.
(1)Where protected objects are adjacent to each other, and the joint is likely to be fired, the objects together with the joint shall be regarded as one single protected object, and high frothing outlet shall be equipped. However, if the joint is separated by a firewall with the fireproof effect of at least one hour or the interval is more than 3m, they may be not treated as a single.
(2)The output value of foam water solution of high frothing outlet shall be more than 2 L/min for every square meter of the protected area.
(3)The above-mentioned protected area refers to the area surrounded by 3 times the height of the protected object. But if the height of the protected object is less than 1/3m, then 1/3m shall be used for calculation.
Articles 38, 44, 45, and 51~53 shall be applicable to emergency power source, piping, fittings, roof tank, pressurization and transmission test upon completion, water flow detecting device, actuating device, and deluge valve of foam fire extinguishing equipments.
Spraying area of foam fire extinguishing equipments shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Where foam nozzle is used, each spraying area shall have a floor area of not less than 50m2 and not more than 100m.
2.Where foam water nozzle is used, the spraying area shall account for 1/3 or more of the floor area and not less than 200m2. However, where the floor area is less than 200m2, the spraying area shall be calculated pursuant to the actual floor area.
Water source for foam fire extinguishing equipments shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Where foam nozzle is used, the minimum output value calculated under Article 72 shall be able to ensure spraying continuously in the largest foam spraying area for more than 20 minutes.
2.Where high frothing outlet is used, the output value shall comply with the following:
(1)Where total flooding is employed, foam water solution of the protected area of the maximum floorslabs shall be calculated following the table below and if the protected area hasn’t be equipped with lock device, the solution shall be added by the volume of the leakage foam:
│Type of expansion ratio │Value of foam water solution for │
│ │every cube of the cubage covered │
│ │by foam (m3) │
│Type I │ 0.04 │
│Type II │ 0.013 │
│Type III │ 0.008 │
(2)Where local application is used, the minimum output value calculated under Article 73 shall be able to ensure spraying continuously in the largest foam spraying area for over 20 minutes.
3.The capacity of water source for moveable foam fire extinguishing equipments shall be more than the output value of two foam sprinklers simultaneously discharging for 15 consecutive minutes.
The solution calculated under the previous Article 76.2(1) and (2) shall be added by the foam amount to fill the pipe and 20% of total foam water solution.
Water source equipped under Article 76 shall be connected to water pressurization and driving device.
Where fire pump is used as the pressurization and driving device for water sources as described in 76.1 and 2, water output and discharging pressure shall meet the following requirements and emergency power source shall be connected.
1.Water output: two times the minimum output value of the largest foam spraying area where there are two ore more spraying areas.
2.Discharging pressure: shall enable each water fog nozzle in a spraying area at the farthest end of the piping system to maintain a pressure of not less than 1kgf/cm2.
3.Fire pump shall be connected to emergency power source.
Where fire pump is used as the pressurization and driving device for water source described in 76.3, water output and discharging pressure shall meet the following requirements and emergency power source shall be connected.
(1)Water output: not less than 130 l/min where there is only one foam fire hydrant box on a same floor, and not less than 260 l/min where there are two or more foam fire hydrant boxes on a same floor.
(2)Discharging pressure: shall enable each water fog nozzle in a spraying area at the farthest end of the piping system to maintain a pressure of not less than 3.5kgf/cm2.
(3)Fire pump shall be connected to emergency power source.
For the same builiding, if low expansion foam concentration is used and each floor is equipped with both fixed and movable foam fire extinguishing equipments, the piping systems and fire pump could be shared, and the output water flow rate head of the pump and the capacity of the foam concentration tank shall be applicable to the bigger one of the two foam fire extinguishing equipments.
Storage capacity of foam raw liquid shall be calculated according to the water quantity calculated under Article 76 and the concentration ratio of the foam raw solution.
Concentration ratio of foam raw liquid mixing with water shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Protein foam solution: 3% or 6%
2.Synthetic active foam solution: 1% or 3%
3.Aqueous film foam solution: 3% or 6%.
Moveable foam fire extinguishing equipments shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.The spraying capacity of each foam aimer on a same floor shall be not less than 100 l/min. Where there are more than two foam fire hydrant boxes on a same floor, the capacity shall be calculated using two sprayers.
2.The spraying pressure of foam aimer shall be more than 3.5kgf/cm2 or 0.35Mpa.
3.Foam raw liquid for moveable foam fire extinguishing equipments shall employ low frothing.
4.Foam fire hydrant box shall be placed within 3m from water hose connector, and a piece of 20m-long or longer water hose and a foam aimer shall be equipped inside the box, and the box surface shall have an area of not less than 0.8m2 and be marked with “Moveable Foam Fire Extinguishing Equipments”, and red indicating lamp for fire pump running shall be installed on the foam fire hydrant box.
Storage tank of foam raw liquid shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Liquid level gauge or metering bar obviously indicating the liquid volume shall be equipped.
2.Pressure gauge shall be attached for those who are pressurized at other times.
3.Tank shall be located in places where the temperature is less than 40℃ without direct sunshine.
4.Effective shockproof measures shall be taken.