Print Time:2021/03/01 09:18
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Chapter Law Content

Part 3 Fire Safety Equipments
Chapter 1 Fire Extinguishing Equipments
Section 1 Fire Extinguisher and Indoor Fire Hydrant Equipments
Article 31
Fire extinguisher shall comply with the following requirements:
1.Fire extinguisher shall be equipped according to the potential fire characteristics of the place, and the minimum fire extinguishing efficiency shall be calculated following the provisions below:
(1)In places listed in 12.1 and 12.5, there shall be a unit fire extinguishing efficiency for every 100m2 of the floor area (including the last proportion less than 100m2) on each floor.
(2)In places listed in 12.2~4, there shall be a unit fire extinguishing efficiency for every 200m2 of the floor area (including the last proportion less than 200 m2) on each floor.
(3)In boiler room, kitchen and other places where fire is used in large amounts, there shall be a unit fire extinguishing efficiency for every 25m2 of the floor area (including the last proportion less than 25 m2) on each floor.
2.There shall be a unit fire extinguishing efficiency for every 100 m2 of the floor area in movie projection room and other places where electric equipments are used.
3.On a storey where there is a fire extinguisher, the travel distance from any point of the living rooms on the floor to the fire extinguisher shall be not more than 20m.
4.Fire extinguishing equipments shall be located in obvious places convenient for fetching, and a 24cmX8cm or larger indicating plate marked with “Fire Extinguisher” in white text on red background shall be set up nearby.
5.For a fire extinguisher hanging on the wall or placed inside a fire extinguisher box, if the weight of the extinguisher is 18kg or more, the distance from the upper end to the floor shall be not more than 1m; if the weight is less than 18kg, the distance shall be not more than 1.5m.
Article 32
Piping and fittings for indoor hydrant and roof water tank shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
Piping
(1)Piping systems should be used for dedicated purposes, but if they are used togher with outdoor fire hyfrants, auto sprinkler system, hoses and other extinguishing facilities and its funcion can be realized individually, the matching pipes aren’t required to use for the special purposes.
(2)One of the following requirements should be met: Chinese National Standards (hereinafter called CNS) CNS6445 piping and 4626 pressure piping should be the carbon steel pipes and 6331 piping should be the stainless steel pipes or equivalent with the same intension, corrosion resistance and thermal resistance or above.
Synthetic resin pipe with its tightness, intension, corrosion resistance, weatherability, thermal resistance and other performances authorized by the central regulating authority.
(3)The pipes’ diameter should be determined by the hydraulic calculation. But if it is used with the hoses, the diameter of the standpipes shoud be over 100 mm.
(4)As for the dameter of the standpipes, the type Ⅰ hydrant is required to be over 63 mm and the second one be over 50 mm.
(5)Standpipes should be installed in places where they are unlikely to be damaged or it is difficult for fire to reach.
(6)Standpipes should be connected to roof tank, gravity or pressure tank, and be full of water during the normal day.
(7)Effective quakeproof measures are required.
Hydraulic seal indictes the on-off state in a clear way and check valve indicates the direction of flow and comply with CNS.
Roof Tank
(1)Water quantity in tank should be more than 0.5m3 for the type I hydrant and 0.3m3 for the type II one. But if it is used togther with other extinguishing facilities, the quantity should be kept to the maximum.
(2)Effective quakeproof steps are required.
(3)No tank is required to be installed on a sloping roof.
Article 33
Upon completion of installing indoor fire hydrant equipments, pressurization test shall be made under a test pressure not less than 1.5 times the total closed pumping lift of the pressurization and driving device. If leakage doesn’t occur after the test pressure lasts for two hours, the equipments shall be regarded as qualified.
Article 34
Except that the places listed in 12.2 (11) or 12.4 shall be equipped with Type I hydrants, other places shall be equipped with Type I or II hydrants pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Type I hydrant shall be equipped according to the following provisions:
(1)The horizontal distance from any point on each floor to the hydrant shall be less than 25m.
(2)In any storey, when all the hydrants are used simultaneously, the aimer discharging pressure of each hydrant shall be more than 1.7kgf/cm2 or 0.17Mpa and the water output more than 130kg/min. But where there are more than two hydrants totally, it shall be supposed two are used simultaneously for calculation.
(3)One hydrant with a caliber of 38mm or 50mm, two pieces of 15m-long water hoses with a caliber of 38mm or 50mm and equipped with quick connectors, a set of hose frame and a line water fog two-purpose aimer with a caliber over 13mm shall be equipped in a hydrant box. But where the horizontal distance from the hydrant connector to any point of the building is less than 15m, two pieces 10m-long water horses may be equipped.
2.Type II hydrant shall be equipped according to the following provisions:
(1)The horizontal distance from any point on each floor to the hydrant shall be less than 25m.
(2)In any storey, when all the hydrants are used simultaneously, the aimer discharging pressure of each fire hydrant shall be more than 1.7kgf/cm2 or 0.17Mpa, and the water output more than 80kg/min. But where there are more than two hydrants totally, it shall be supposed two are used simultaneously for calculation.
(3)One hydrant with a caliber of 25mm, 30m-long water hose or the fire hose which section remain round(消防用保形水帶), and a set of hose frame and a line water fog two-purpose aimer shall be equipped in a fire hydrant box. And the aimer shall be equipped with an operable switching device.
The above-mentioned hydrants shall comply with the following provisions:
1.The height of hydrant switch from the ground shall be more than 0.3m and less than 1.5m.
2.Hydrants shall be located nearby aisle or fireproof stairway, convenient for fetching.
3.In gathering or amusement places, hydrants shall be located at the two sides of stage and behind auditoria, and behind loge.
4.At least one testing outlet shall be equipped at appropriate locations on the roof, and marked with “Testing Water Outlet”. But if it is difficult for a sloping roof to install a testing outlet, the outlet isn’t required.
Article 35
Indoor hydrant box shall comply with the following provisions:
1.The box shall be made of steel sheet with a thickness more than 1.6mm or the equivalent of nonflammable materials.
2.The box shall be deep enough to contain hydrants, hose and nozzle, and the surface area shall be more than 0.7m2.
3.The box surface shall be marked with obvious text “Fire Hydrant” that is unlikely to be brushed off, and each character shall be bigger than 20cm2.
Article 36
The capacity of indoor fire hydrant equipments shall be not less than the quantity of all the fire hydrants on the floor that has the most indoor fire hydrants continuously discharging for 20 minutes. However, if the total number of fire hydrants on the floor is more than 2, then 2 shall be used as the total number.
Where fire water is used mixed together with common water, necessary measures shall be taken to ensure the capacity of the former water source are in the effective range.
Water source for fire extinguisher may be equipped together with water sources for other fire extinguishing equipments, but the total capacity shall be not less than the sum of the necessary water quantity required by fire extinguishing equipments.
Article 37
Water source equipped under Article 36 shall be connected with pressurization and driving device in accordance with the following clauses:
1.Gravity tank shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)There shall be nilometer, drainpipe, overflow discharging pipe, feedwater pipe, and inlet.
(2)The necessary drop height of water tank for hydrant shall be more than the value computed using the formula below:
Necessary drop height = water head loss by fire hose friction + water head loss by matching pipe friction + 17 (Unit: m)
H = h1 + h2 + 17m
2.Pressure tank shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)There shall be pressure gauge, nilometer, drainpipe, feedwater pipe, air supply pipe, air compressor, and inlet.
(2)The air in water tank shall be more than 1/3 of the capacity of the tank, and the pressure more than the necessary pressure of using fire hydrant at the highest point of the building to maintain the prescribed discharging water pressure. Automatic pressurization can be made when the pressure and liquid level inside the tank lower down. Air compressor and pressurizing pump shall be connected to emergency power source.
(3)The necessary drop height of water tank for hydrant shall be more than the value computed using the formula below:
Necessary pressure = water head loss by fire hose friction + water head loss by matching pipe friction + drop height + 1.7 (Unit: kgf/cm2)
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + 1.7kgf/cm2
3.Fire pump shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)For Type I fire hydrant, water output of fire pump shall be more than 150L/min each fire hydrant, and for Type II fire hydrant, more than 90L/min each fire hydrant. However, if the total number of fire hydrants exceeds 2, the 2 shall be used as the total number.
(2)The total pumping head of fire pump for fire hydrant shall be more than the value computed using the following formula:
Total pumping head = water head loss by fire hose friction + water head loss by matching pipe friction + drop height + 17m (Unit: m)
H = h1 + h2 + h3 + 17m
(3)The pumps shall be used dedicatedly. However, they may be used together with other fire extinguishing equipments if this has no harmful effect on the performance of the equipments.
(4)They shall be connected to emergency power source.
The above-mentioned pressurized type water supply system shall be equipped except the gravity tank pursuant to the following provisions:
1.They shall be located in places convenient for repair and unlikely to be damaged by fire.
2.Pressurized type water supply system used with fire pumps shall be separated by walls which can resist the fire for at least one hour, floorslab, fireproof doors or windows and other fireproof facilities. But if it is located in the roof or outdoors and protected by waterproof materials, such devices are excluded from the obligation in this provision.
3.Automatic or manual actuating device that can be only stopped manually shall be equipped. Manual actuating device shall be installed in each indoor fire hydrant box, and there shall be a red start indicating lamp on each indoor fire hydrant box.
4.Necessary decompression measures shall be taken when the discharging pressure of an indoor fire hydrant exceeds 7kgf/cm2.
5.Effective quakeproof steps shall be required.
Article 38
Generator or battery shall be used for the emergency power source of indoor fire hydrant, and the power capacity shall be able to enable the power source to work for at least 30 minutes.
In places listed in 12.4, engine power system shall be used for the above-mentioned emergency power source.
Section 2 Outdoor Fire Hydrant Equipments
Article 39
Articles 32.1 (1)~(5), 32.1 (7), 32.2, 33 and 38 shall apply to piping, pressure test and emergency power source of outdoor fire hydrant equipments.
The exposure part of the horizontal main pipes should be less than 20 m, other than satisfy the previous requirement, and the direction of flow and pipes name should be marked clearly.
Article 40
The following requirements shall be observed in the construction of outdoor hydrants:
1.Hydrant diameter shall measure at least 63 mm and location of it shall be within a 40-meter radius of the outer walls of the building ground floor.
2.Nozzle discharge pressure shall be at least 2.5 kg/cm2 or 0.25 MPa, and discharge flow rate shall be at least 350 L/min.
3.The outdoor hydrant switch shall not exceed the maximum height of 1.5 meters above ground and be above the minimum height of 0.6 meter above ground. Where the hydrant is installed underground, the fire hose joint position shall be at least 0.3 meter above ground.
4.A fire hose house shall be located within a 5-meter radius of the hydrant and meet the following requirements:
(1)The fire hose house shall be deep enough to contain fire hoses and nozzle. Drainage holes shall be installed on both sides of the house base. Moreover, the cover of the fire hose house shall have an area of at least 0.8 m2.
(2)The house cover shall be indelibly marked with “Fire hose” in visible text. Each word shall measure at least 20cm2.
(3)The fire hose house shall contain at least two pieces of fire hoses having a length of at least 20 meters and a diameter of 63 mm, one dual-purpose beeline spray nozzle with a diameter of at least 19 mm, and a valve-type hydrant switch.
5.The space within a 3-meter radius of the outdoor hydrant shall always be kept vacant and free from piled objects, trees, or shrubbery. Visible signs saying “Hydrant” shall be installed near the hydrant location.
Article 41
The capacity of outdoor fire hydrant equipment shall be not less than the water output of two outdoor fire hydrants discharging simultaneously for 30minutes.
Where fire water is used mixed together with common water, necessary measures shall be taken to ensure the capacity of the former water source are in the effective range.
Water source for fire extinguisher may be equipped together with water sources for other fire extinguishing equipments, but the total capacity shall be not less than the sum of the necessary water quantity of each fire extinguishing equipment.
Article 42
Water source equipped under Article 41 shall be connected to pressurization and driving device in accordance with any clause of the following:
1.Gravity tank shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)There shall be nilometer, drainpipe, overflow discharging pipe, feedwater pipe, and inlet.
(2)The necessary drop height of water tank shall be more than the value computed using the formula below:
Necessary drop height = water head loss by fire hose friction + water head loss by matching pipe friction + 25 (Unit: m)
H = h1 + h2 + 25m
2.Pressure tank shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)There shall be pressure gauge, nilometer, drainpipe, feedwater pipe, air supply pipe, air compressor, and inlet.
(2)The air in a water tank shall be more than 1/3 of the capacity of the tank, and the pressure over the necessary pressure of using fire hydrant at the highest point of the building to maintain the prescribed discharging water pressure. Automatic pressurization shall be made when the pressure and liquid level inside the tank lower down. Air compressor and pressurizing pump shall be connected to emergency power source.
(3)The necessary pressure of water tank for Type I fire hydrant shall be more than the value computed using the formula below:
Necessary pressure = water head loss by fire hose friction + water head loss by matching pipe friction + drop height + 2.5 (Unit: kgf/cm2)
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + 2.5kgf/cm2
3.Fire pump shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)Water output of fire pump shall be more than 400 L/min each fire hydrant. However, if the total number of fire hydrants exceeds 2, the 2 shall be used as the total number.
(2)The total pumping head of fire pump shall be more than the value computed using the following formula:
Total pumping head = water head loss by fire hose friction + water head loss by matching pipe friction + drop height + 25 (Unit: m)
H = h1 + h2 + h3 + 25m
(3)The pumps shall be used dedicatedly. However, they may be used together with other fire extinguishing equipments if this has no harmful effect on the performance of the equipments.
(4)They shall be connected to emergency power source.
Provisions of 37.2(1)~(3) and 37.2(5) shall apply to the above-mentioned pressurization and driving device except gravity tanks, and effective decompression measures shall be taken when the discharging pressure of outdoor fire hydrant aimer exceeds 6kgf/cm2 or 0.6Mpa.
Section 3 Automatic Sprinkler system
Article 43
Any of the following automatic sprinkler system may be equipped optionally according to the actual circumstance. But only open type can be equipped in stages of the places listed in 12.1(1) and of conference room listed in 12.1(2)..
1.Enclosed wet type: pipes are filled with high-pressure water at other times, and water nozzles immediately on motion of the nozzle.
2.Enclosed dry type: pipes are filled with high-pressure air at other times, and water is sprayed after the air is discharged upon starting of the nozzle.
3.Open type: there is no water in the pipe at other times, and water flows into the pipe after the valve is opened.
4.Pre-action type: pipes are filled with low-pressure air at other times; senor is used to actuate water flow detecting device, and water sprays immediately on motion of the nozzle.
5.Other types recognized by the central regulating authority.
Article 44
Piping and fittings of automatic sprinkler system and roof tank shall comply with Article 32.1 and 32.2 and meet the following provisions:
1.Preservation treatment like zincification etc shall be made to the secondary side matching pipe of water flow detecting device for enclosed dry type or pre-action type, as well as the secondary side matching pipe of deluge valve.
2.The secondary side matching pipe of water flow detecting device of enclosed dry or pre-action type shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions for ensuring effective drainage.
(1)Brach pipe shall incline 4cm every 10m, and main pipe 2cm every 10m.
(2)Drain valve shall be equipped obviously, and marked with “Drain Valve”.
3.The quantity of water in a roof tank shall be not less than 1m3 where standpipe is connected to the roof tank.
Article 45
On completion of automatic sprinkler system, pressurization test shall be made pursuant to Article 33. But air compression test shall be made to pipe system of enclosed dry type automatic sprinkler system. During the test, the air pressure remains at 2.8kgf/cm2 or 0.28Mpa for 24 consecutive hours. If the air leakage is less than 0.1kg/cm2 or 0.01Mpa, the product is qualified.
Article 46
Nozzle shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
On stages and in property rooms of theater, ballroom, nightclub, singing room, conference hall and other show places, as well as projection room of cinema and warehouse of flammable materials, the horizontal distance from any point to the nozzle shall be less than 1.7m.
Buildings not included in the previous clause should be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
Standard sprinkler head (type II sensitivity): the horizontal distance from any point on each floor to the sprinkler head shall be less than 2.1m. But in fireproof buildings, the figure could be increased to 2.3m.
Fast response sprinkler head (type II sensitivity): the horizontal distance from any point on each floor to the sprinkler head shall be less than 2.3m. But in fireproof buildings, the figure could be increased to 2.6m. For effective sprinkling radius from sprinkler head as certified by central regulating authority, the horizontal distance from any point on each floor to the sprinkler head may exceed 2.6m.
The living rooms, wards and other similar places listed in Article 12.1 (3), 12.1 (6), 12.2(7) and 12.5(1) shall be equipped with sprinkler heads dedicated to small partition approved (only the type I sensitivity can be applied). And the horizontal distance from any point to the nozzle shall be less than 2.6m, the minimum distance between sprinklers shall be 3m, and the protecting area of any nozzle shall be less than 13m2.
The living room listed in the previous clause, its corridors, aisles and other similar places shall be equipped with sidewall sprinkler head (only the type I sensitivity can be applied). The horizontal distance between the both sides of wall surface and the nozzle shall be less than 1.8m and distance between the front of wall and the nozzle less than 3.6m.
Places approved by the central regulating authority to store a large amount of flammable materials shall be equipped with water spray nozzles if the height of its ceiling is over 6m and other places also be equipped with this kind of nozzle if the height of the ceiling is over 10m.
In underground buildings, if the height from ceiling to floor is 50cm or more, both the ceiling and the floor shall be equipped with nozzles, and the horizontal distance from any point to the nozzle shall be less than 2.1m. However, it is allowable that ceiling decorated with inflammable materials is not equipped with nozzles.
The water nozzle of overhead warehouse mentioned in Article 17.1(6) shall be installed pursuant to the following provisions:
The nozzles installed on shelves should comply with the following requirements:
The horizontal distance from any point to the sprinkler head shall be less than 2.5m and the nozzles should be installed staggerly.
One sprinkler head shall be at least provided to the places which store cotton, plastic, wooden and paper products, fiber goods and other flammable materials for every 4m heigh, and one at least installed for every 6m heigh if the places store other materials.
If the materials stored block the spraying from sprinklers, another sprinkler head shall be installed to the below such materials.
Protection plates shall be installed in accordance with Article 47.2. But if the sprinkler heads dedicated to racks approved by the central regulating authority has been installed, protection plates isn’t required.
If the sprinkler heads are located in the ceiling or floor, except mentioned in the previous clause, the horizontal distance from any point of the ceiling or floor to a sprinkler head shall be less than 2.1m.
Article 47
Nozzle shall be located pursuant to the following provisions:
Axle center of the nozzle shall be vertical to mounting surface.
The space within 45cm under the deflector of nozzle and within horizontally 30cm shall be kept vacant.
Where deflector of enclosed nozzle is installed under the ceiling, the distance between the two shall be less than 30cm.
Where deflector of enclosed nozzle is installed under the beam, the distance between the deflector and the beam bottom shall be less than 10cm, and the distance between the deflector and the floorslabs or ceiling less than 50cm.
Where the mounting surface of enclosed nozzle is divided and surrounded by beam with a net height of 40cm or more or other similar constructions, each division shall be equipped with nozzle unless the interval between the beams or similar constructions is less than 180cm.
Where enclosed nozzle is used and the height of air pipe or other obstacles exceeds 120cm, nozzle shall also be equipped under the air pipe or other obstacles.
Sidewall sprinkler heads shall comply with the following requirements:
The distance between the nozzle and mounting surface (wall) shall be less than 15m.
The distance between the deflector and ceiling or floor shall be less than 15m.
The space within 45m under the deflector or horizontally shall be kept vacant.
Where there is a beam aside, the enclosed nozzle shall be equipped pursuant to the table below:
┌──────────────┬──┬───┬────┬───┐
│Net distance between nozzle │≦74│75~99 │100~149 │≧150 │
│and beam side (cm) │ │ │ │ │
├──────────────┼──┼───┼────┼───┤
│Height of deflector above │ 0 │ ≦9 │ ≦14 │ ≦29 │
│beam underside (cm) │ │ │ │ │
└──────────────┴──┴───┴────┴───┘
Where the distance between the deflector of the nozzle mentioned in the above 47.7 and the ceiling or floorslabs is more than 30cm, an protection plate shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
The protection plate shall be made of metal materials, and the diameter shall be not less than 30cm.
The distance between deflector and protection plate shall be not more than 30cm.
Article 48
Enclosed-type nozzle of certain rated temperature shall be selected according to the maximum ambient temperature of the mounting position and following the table below:
57
│Maximum ambient temperature │Rated temperature │
├──────────────┼─────────┤
│ <39℃ │ <75℃ │
├──────────────┼─────────┤
│ 39℃≦T<64℃ │ 75℃≦T<121℃ │
├──────────────┼─────────┤
│ 64℃≦T<106℃ │ 121℃≦T<162℃ │
├──────────────┼─────────┤
│ ≧106℃ │ ≧162℃ │
└──────────────┴─────────┘
Article 49
It is allowable that nozzle is not equipped in the following places:
1.Toilet, bathroom or water closet.
2.Fume chamber of indoor safety stairway, fume chamber of special protected stair or emergency elevator hoistway.
3.Fireproof elevator, fluctuating way or piping room.
4.Elevator machine rooms or machine rooms of venting equipments.
5.Telecommunication machine rooms or computer rooms.
6.Equipment rooms of generator, transformer or other similar electric equipments.
7.Aisles where fire can’t be effectively detected due to external air current.
8.Operating room, delivery room, X-ray (radiation) room, intensive care sickroom, anesthetic room, or other similar places.
9.The proportion of fixed chairs in auditorium used for places listed in 12.1(1) and assembly hall listed in (2) where the height of the mounting surface of nozzle is more than 8m.
10.Above water surface of indoor swimming pool, or ice surface of skating ground.
11.Cashbox where the main construction is fireproof and the opening is equipped with fireproof door that has a fireproof effect of at least one hour.
12.Warehouses or rooms where aluminum powder, calcium carbide, calcium phosphide, natrium, calcium oxide, magnesium powder, kalium, natrium dioxide and other water-deprivation substances, or other chemicals that will cause danger on encountering water are stored.
13.Buildings provided in Article 17.1(5) (the underground floor, non-opening floor and floors over 11 storeys aren’t included) and used for the purposes listed in Article 12.2~4 shall be separated from other parts by walls or floorslabs that has the fireproof effect of at least one hour and satisfy the following requirements:
(1)The total area of separating wall and openings shall be less than 8m2 and the area of any opening shall be less than 4m2.
(2)The openings mentioned in Article 49.13(1) shall be equipped with fireproof door and other similar facilities that have the fireproof effect of at least one hour and it isn’t allowable that the space between the openings and corridor and stairway cannot be equipped with iron rolling door for fire fighting. But if the area of openings is less than 4m2 and the division has two different directional escapes, the fireproof iron doors, windows and other facilities that shall has the fireproof effect of at least half an hour.
14. Buildings provided in Article 17.1(4) (the underground floor, non-opening floor and floors over 11 storeys aren’t included) and used for the purposes listed in Article 12.2~4 shall be separated from other parts by walls or floorslabs that has the fireproof effect of at least one hour and satisfy the following requirements:
The area of floorslabs of the separted part shall be less than 200m2.
Inner furnishing shall comply with Article 88 of Part of Design and Construction, Architecture Technology Standard.
(3)The openings shall be equipped with fireproof doors, windows and other similar facilities that have the fireproof effect of at least one hour and it isn’t allowable that the space between the openings and corridor and stairway cannot be equipped with iron rolling door for fire fighting. But if the area of openings is less than 4m2 and the division has two different directional escapes, the fireproof iron doors, windows and other facilities that shall has the fireproof effect of at least half an hour.
15. Other places designated by the central regulating authority.
Article 50
The water output of a nozzle shall be more than 80L/min (those installed in the overhead warehouse shall be 140L/min), and pressure more than 1kgf/cm2 or 0.1Mpa. The water output of the small separation nozzle shall be more than 50L/min.
The water output of the open type nozzle shall be more than 5L/min for every 1m2 of the protecting area, and more than 10L/min for every 1m2 of places where store flammable substances.
Article 51
The automatic sprinkler system shall be equipped with water flow detecting devices pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Where the floor area of each floor is within 3,000m2, each floor shall be equipped with a set; where the floor area exceeds 3,000m2, each floor shall be equipped with two sets. But where each of two adjacent storeys has not more than 10 nozzles and automatic fire alarm equipments installed shall be co-used that very two storeys.
2.On a floor without compartments, the foresaid 3,000m2 shall be increased to 10,000m2.
3.Alarm shall be made when nozzles or deluge valves are opened to spray water.
4.Braking valves shall be equipped with a height from the ground less than 1.5m and more than 0.8m, and indicating characters of “Braking Valve” shall be obviously marked nearby.
Article 52
Automatic and manual actuating device of open type automatic sprinkler system shall be installed pursuant to the following provisions. But it is allowable that automatic actuating device is not installed where the receiving instrument is located in places where there are people at other times and the device can be immediately started in case of fire.
1.Automatic actuating device shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)Deluge valve and pressurization and driving device shall be actuated upon starting of sensing nozzle or detector.
(2)One sensing nozzle with a rated temperature of not more than 79℃ shall be equipped for every 20m2, and at least one fixed temperature Type I or Type II detector shall be equipped in every discharge area pursuant to Article 120.
(3)Sensing nozzle shall be placed in a location where the height of the mounting surface from the floor is not more than 5m and fire can be effectively detected.
2.Manual actuating device shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)A manual starting valve shall be equipped with a height from the ground not less than 0.8m and not more than1.5m, and indicating characters of “Manual Starting Valve” shall be obviously marked thereby.
(2)Deluge valve and pressurization and driving device shall be actuated upon motion of manual starting valve.
Article 53
Deluge valve of open type automatic sprinkler system shall be pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Each discharge area shall be equipped one.
2.The secondary side piping of all-around relief valve shall be equipped with testing device, which is able to test the motion of the valve when water is not discharge in this area.
3.The pressure endured by deluge valve shall be not more than the maximum working pressure.
Article 54
Discharge area of open type automatic sprinkler system shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Each stage shall have not more than 4 discharge areas.
2.Where there are two or more discharge areas, the floor area of each discharge area shall be not less than 100m2, and any two adjacent areas shall be mutually overlapped so as to fight fire effectively.
Article 55
Enclosed or pre-action type automatic sprinkler system shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Air compressor for compressed air at the secondary side of water flow detecting device of enclosed dry or pre-action type shall be used dedicatedly, and shall be able to increase the pressure to the preset value of secondary side matching pipe of the water flow detecting device within 30 minutes.
2.Decompression alarm equipment for the secondary side of water flow detecting device shall be located in places populated at other times.
3.Water flow detecting device shall actuate the nozzle within 1 minute after the nozzle is opened.
4.Nozzle shall employ upward type unless matching pipe can take effective measures.
Article 56
Check valve at the end of the automatic sprinkler system with enclosed type nozzle shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Pipe diameter shall be more than 25mm.
2.Check valve shall be equipped according to the piping system of each water flow detecting device, and connected to the end of the farthest branch pipe with the lowest discharge pressure on each floor of the building.
3.The primary side of check valve shall be equipped with pressure gauge, and the secondary side with metering hole having the same discharge performance as nozzle.
4.The height from the floor shall be less than 2.1m, and discharge pipe shall be attached; and “End Check Valve” shall be marked obviously.
Article 57
The water source capacity of the automatic sprinkler system shall conform to the following:
1.Where a standard-response or quick-response closed type sprinkler is used, water source shall be capable of providing a steady supply of water for 20 uninterrupted minutes to prescribed sprinkler quantity shown in the table below. However, where the number of sprinkler used in a particular fire scene is less than the prescribed number of sprinkler, water source capacity shall be calculated pursuant to the actual number of sprinkler to be used.
┌───────────────────┬──────────┐
│Location │Sprinkler Quantity │
│ ├────┬─────┤
│ │Quick- │Standard- │
│ │response│response │
├───────────────────┼────┼─────┤
│Buildings having at least 11 floor │12 │15 │
│levels above ground, and underground │ │ │
│buildings │ │ │
├──────┬────────────┼────┼─────┤
│Buildings │Places prescribed in │12 │15 │
│rising under│Article 12 Subparagraph │ │ │
│10 floor │1, Item (4) and part of │ │ │
│levels │multi-purpose buildings │ │ │
│(inclusive) │used for places │ │ │
│high │prescribed in Article 12│ │ │
│ │Subparagraph 1, Item (4)│ │ │
│ ├────────────┼────┼─────┤
│ │Underground floor levels│12 │15 │
│ ├────────────┼────┼─────┤
│ │Others │8 │10 │
├──────┼────────────┼────┼─────┤
│High rack │Storage facilities for │24 │30 │
│warehouses │cotton, plastic, wood, │ │ │
│ │textile products, and │ │ │
│ │other inflammable │ │ │
│ │materials │ │ │
│ ├────────────┼────┼─────┤
│ │Storage facilities for │16 │20 │
│ │other materials │ │ │
└──────┴────────────┴────┴─────┘
2.Where an open sprinkler is used, the following provisions shall be observed:
(1) In the matter of stage structures in places prescribed in Article 12 Subparagraph 1, Item (1) and assembly hall listed in Item (2) located inside buildings rising under 10 floor levels (inclusive) high, the capacity shall exceed an uninterrupted 20-minute water supply for all the sprinklers in the largest discharge area.
(2) In the matter of stage structures found in locations stated in Article 12 Subparagraph 1, Item (1) and assembly hall listed in Item (2) located inside buildings rising at least 11 floor levels high, the capacity shall exceed an uninterrupted 20-minute water supply for all the sprinklers in the largest building floor area.
3.Where sidewall type sprinklers or sprinklers for small compartments are used, water source capacity shall exceed an uninterrupted 20-minute water supply to 8 sprinklers for stories rising under 10 floor levels (inclusive) high and 12 sprinklers for stories rising over 11 floor levels high.
4.Where fixed type nozzles are used, water source capacity shall exceed an uninterrupted 20-minute water supply for all the sprinklers in the largest discharge area. Where turret type nozzles are used, water source capacity shall exceed an uninterrupted 20-minute water supply to the sprinkler at maximum discharge status.
Where dry or pre-action water flow detecting devices are used, it is imperative to add 50% of the total number of sprinklers stated in the foregoing Paragraph.
In locations where installation of sprinklers is not required, except under the circumstances provided in Article 49, Subparagraphs 7 and 12, a supplementary sprinkler hydrant shall be permitted to be installed pursuant to the following regulations:
(1)The horizontal distance between any point and the fire hose connector shall not exceed 15 meters. However, this requirement does not apply to places equipped with an automatic sprinkler system complete with sprinklers.
(2)Where a floor level is equipped with supplementary sprinkler hydrant, and where all of the supplementary sprinkler hydrants may be used simultaneously, the discharge pressure of each nozzle shall be at least 2.5kg/cm2 or 0.25 MPa; discharge flow rate shall be at least 60 L/min. However, where there are more than two supplementary sprinkler hydrants had been installed (where the distance between two hose connectors of the supplementary sprinkler hydrants is greater than 30 meters, the sprinkler hydrant shall be counted as one par area), then it shall be counted as two sprinkler hydrants on simultaneous operation.
(3)The words “supplementary sprinkler hydrant” shall be labeled on the cover of the supplementary sprinkler hydrant house; moreover, a red operating indicator light shall be installed on the upper side of the house.
(4)The nozzle shall be equipped with an easy-to-open device.
(5)The distance between the floor and the switch valve shall be less than 1.5 meters (inclusive).
(6)The fire hose shall be easy to operate and extend.
(7)Piping shall be installed from the secondary side of the water flow detecting device of each floor level.
Article 58
The water source installed as prescribed in the preceding article shall be connected to the pressurized type water supply system, and installed pursuant to one of the following conditions:
1.Where a gravity tank is used, the following requirements shall apply:
(1)The system shall be equipped with a water level gauge, drainage pipe, overflow drainage pipe, water supply pipe, and man hole.
(2)The required drop height of the tank shall be higher than that obtained from the formula provided below:
Required drop height =friction loss head of piping + 10 (unit: meters)
H = h1 + 10m
2.Where a pressure tank is used, the following requirements shall apply:
(1)The system shall be equipped with a pressure gauge, water level gauge, drainpipe, water supply pipe, air supply pipe, air compressor, and man hole.
(2)It is imperative that at least 1/3 space of the water tank shall be allotted to hold air, and pressure shall be more than adequate to maintain the prescribed pressure necessary to discharge or spray water from a sprinkler located at the highest point of a building. Automatic pressurization shall be effected whenever air pressure and water level inside the tank decreases. The air compressor and the pressurizing pump shall be connected to emergency power source.
(3)The essential water tank pressure shall be above the minimum pressure, as obtained from the equation set below:
Essential pressure = friction loss head of piping + drop height + 1 (Unit: kgf/cm2)
P = P1 + P2 + 1 kgf/cm2
3.Where a fire pump is used, the following requirements shall apply:
(1)Fire pump capacity shall be the sprinkler quantity prescribed in the foregoing article multiplied by 90 L/min (for high rack warehouse, 130 L/min). Where sprinklers for small compartments are used, sprinkler quantity shall be multiplied by 60 L/min. Where discharge nozzles are used, the capacity shall be prescribed based on the recognized computation formula of the central fire regulating authority.
(2)The total head of the pump shall be set above that determined through the following equation:
Total head of the pump = friction loss head of piping + drop height + 10 (Unit: meters)
H = h1 + h2 + 10m
(3)Fire pumps shall be used dedicatedly. However, this requirement is not applicable where other fire extinguishing equipments are available for use, providing that simultaneous usage of varying equipments do not negatively affect equipment performance.
(4)Fire Pumps shall be connected to the emergency power source.
The aforesaid pressurized type water supply system shall comply with the requirements set forth in Article 37 Paragraph 2 Subparagraph 1, 2 and 5. Moreover, it is imperative that the sprinkler discharge pressure shall not exceed 10 kg/cm2 or 1 MPa.
Article 59
Outside buildings equipped with automatic sprinkler, 63-mm caliber water flow outlet shall be installed overground near the building line where is accessible for fire fighting cars pursuant to the following provisions:
1.They shall be used dedicatedly.
2.For a building equipped with automatic sprinkler where the floor area is less than 3,000m2, at least one double-opening outlet shall be installed, and connected to a female quick connector. One more outlet shall be added every time the floor area exceeds 3,000m2. However, if the due number is more than 3, then totally 3 outlets shall be installed.
3.They shall be placed where there is no obstacle and the height above the base ground is not more than 1m and not less than 0.5m.
4.They shall be connected to standpipe piping system, and their pipe diameters shall be not less than that of standpipe. Moreover, inverted valve and check valve shall be equipped at the locations convenient for examination and repair.
5.“Water Outlet” and pressure range shall be marked obviously nearby the outlet.
Article 60
Emergency power source for automatic sprinkler system shall be established pursuant to Article 38.
Section 4 Water Fog Fire Extinguishing Equipments
Article 61
Water fog nozzle shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.The total area of protected objects shall be within the effective range of each water fog nozzle.
2.The effective radius of each water fog nozzle shall be not more than 2.1m.
3.The quantity of water fog nozzles shall be worked out according to the mounting angle, the drainage output and the area of protected objects. The water output per square meter shall be not less than 20 l/min in places listed in Item 3 and Item 4 in the attached table of Article 18, and not less than 10 l/min in places listed in other items in the same table.
Article 62
Emergency power source, piping, fittings, roof tank and pressurization and transmission test upon completion, water flow detecing device, actuating device, and deluge valve of water spray fire-extinguishing equipments shall be established pursuant to Articles 38, 44, 45, and 51~53.
Article 63
Spraying area refers to the radiation area of a deluge valve when being actuated, and each area is 50m2 in principle.
Where there are two or more foresaid spraying areas, the diameter of main pipe shall be not less than 100 mm.
Article 64
The capacity of water source for water spray fire extinguishing equipments shall be kept at not less than 20 m3. Where there are two or more spraying areas, the capacity shall be kept at not less than 40 m3.The capacity of water source for water spray fire extinguishing equipments shall be kept at not less than 20 m3. Where there are two or more spraying areas, the capacity shall be kept at not less than 40 m3.
Article 65
Water source equipped under Article 64 shall be connected to water pressurization and driving device.
Where fire pump is used as pressurization and driving device, water output and discharging pressure shall meet the following requirements, and emergency power source shall be connected.
1.Water output: more than 1,200 L/min. Where there are two or more spraying areas, the figure shall be more than 2,000 l/min.
2.Discharging pressure: shall enable each water fog nozzle in a spraying area at the farthest end of the piping system to maintain a pressure of more than 2.7kgf/cm2 or 0.27Mpa. But those for protecting electric equipment, the figure shall be more than 3.5kgf/cm2 or 0.35Mpa
Article 66
The distance of water fog nozzle and matching pipe from high-voltage electric equipments shall comply with the table below:
┌──────────┬──┬──┬──┬──┬───┬───┬
│Voltage (KV) │≦7 │≦10│≦20│≦30│≦60 │≦70 │
├─────┬────┼──┼──┼──┼──┼───┼───┼
│Separated │Standard│250 │300 │400 │500 │1,000 │1,100 │
│distance ├────┼──┼──┼──┼──┼───┼───┼
│(mm) │Minimum │150 │200 │300 │400 │700 │800 │
└─────┴────┴──┴──┴──┴──┴───┴───┴
───┬───┬───┬───┐
≦100 │≦140 │≦200 │≦345 │
───┼───┼───┼───┤
1,500 │1,900 │2,60 │3,300 │
───┼───┼───┼───┤
1,100 │1,500 │2,100 │2,600 │
───┴───┴───┴───┘
Article 67
Water outlet for water spraying shall be equipped pursuant to Articles 59.1~4, and “Outlet for Water Spraying” and pressure range shall be marked obviously.
Article 68
Drainage equipments in indoor parking areas equipped with water spray fire extinguisher shall comply with the following provisions:
1.The ground of parking area shall have a slope gradient of more than 2%.
2.Parking slots except the proportion toward the driveway shall be equipped with 10cm or higher boundary barrier or boundary ditch with a depth up to 10cm and width over 10cm, which shall be connected with drainage.
3.Fire extinguishing pit shall be provided with oil-water separator, and located in place where it is difficult for fire to reach.
4.Drainage ditch shall be equipped with collecting pipes and in the center or the two sides of driveway and connected to the fire extinguishing pit.
5.The size and slope gradient of drainage ditch and collecting pipe shall ensure the maximum capacity of the pressurization and driving device can be discharged effectively.
Section 5 Foam Fire Extinguishing Equipments
Article 69
Any of the following spraying patterns of foam fire extinguishing equipments may be selected according to the actual circumstance:
1.Fixed: Foam outlet shall be equipped pursuant to the shape, construction, quantity and property of the protected object. The quantity and location of outlets and spraying amount shall be able to ensure effective fire extinguishing.
2.Movable: The distance from water hose connector to any point of the protected object shall be not more than 15m.
Article 70
Proper foam outlet shall be selected for fixed foam fire extinguishing equipments according to the actual expansion ratio of foam and the table below:
┌──────────┬────────────────┐
│Expansion ratio │Type of foam outlet │
├──────────┼────────────────┤
│<20 (Low frothing) │Foam nozzle or foam-water nozzle│
├──────────┼────────────────┤
│80≦R≦1,000 │High frothing outlet │
│(High frothing) │ │
└──────────┴────────────────┘
The above-mentioned expansion ratio refers to the ratio of the frothed cubage of foam to the cubage of foam-water solution required by frothing.
Article 71
Foam nozzle shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Foam-water nozzle shall be used in hangar and other places, and at least one nozzle shall be equipped for every 8m2 of floor area, thus covering the protected objects in the effective range.
2.Foam nozzle shall be used in garage, indoor parking area and other places, and at least one nozzle shall be equipped for every 9m2 of floor area, thus covering the protected objects in the effective range.
3.The horizontal distance from any point of the spraying area to the foam nozzle shall be not more than 2.1m.
4.Where there are beams aside, foam nozzle may be equipped pursuant to 47.1(7).
5.Where there are multi-level parking facilities in an indoor parking area, the mounting surface of the top level shall be equipped with foam nozzle, and matching pipe shall be extended to between the vehicles, enabling the nozzle to give off foam toward the lower parking platform. But it is allowable that matching pipe for sensing nozzle is not extended.
6.Where foam nozzle for the above-mentioned multi-level parking facilities can’t be equipped on parking platforms other than the top level due to the construction, the matching pipe shall form an individual unit pursuant to the parking construction, and foam nozzles shall be equipped around to spray foam to the whole ambient area.
Article 72
The output value of foam nozzle shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Output value of foam-water nozzle shall be not less than 75 l/min.
2.Output value of foam nozzle shall be in accordance with the table below:
Type of foam raw liquid Output value for every square meter of floor area (l/min)
Protein foam solution≧6.5
Synthetic foam solution ≧8
Aqueous film foam solution≧3.7
Article 73
High frothing outlet shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Where total flooding is used, the following shall be observed, and the opening of the protected area shall be automatically closed before foam water solution is sprayed. However, it is allowable that automatic closing device is not equipped where the leakage at the opening can be made up effectively.
(1)Output value of foam water solution for high frothing outlet shall be calculated following the table below:
┌─────┬─────────┬──────────────┐
│Protected │Type of expansion │Output value of foam water │
│object │ratio │solution for every cube/min │
│ │ │of cubage covered by foam │
│ │ │(L) │
├─────┼─────────┼──────────────┤
│Hangar │80≦R<250 │ 2 │
│ │(hereinafter │ │
│ │referred to as │ │
│ │Type I) │ │
│ ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ │250≦R<500 │ 0.5 │
│ │(hereinafter │ │
│ │referred to as │ │
│ │Type II) │ │
│ ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ │500≦R<1000 │ 0.29 │
│ │(hereinafter │ │
│ │referred to as │ │
│ │Type III) │ │
├─────┼─────────┼──────────────┤
│ Indoor │Type I │ 1.11 │
│ parking ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ area or │Type II │ 0.28 │
│ garage ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ │Type III │ 0.16 │
├─────┼─────────┼──────────────┤
│ Places │Type I │ 1.25 │
│ listed ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ in │Type II │ 0.31 │
│ Article ├─────────┼──────────────┤
│ 18.8 │Type III │ 0.18 │
└─────┴─────────┴──────────────┘
(2)The above-mentioned cubage covered by foam refers to that cubage surrounded from the floor of the protected object to 0.05m above the highest point of the protected object.
(3)Where high frothing outlets are located in the protected area, at least one outlet that is able to spray this area shall be equipped for every 500m2 of the floor area, and a stopping device shall be attached to the outlet.
(4)The location of high frothing outlet shall be higher than the highest point of the protected object.
(5)Where the location of the protected object is more than 5m above the floor and high frothing outlets are used, total flooding shall be employed.
2.Where local application is used, the following provisions shall be observed.
(1)Where protected objects are adjacent to each other, and the joint is likely to be fired, the objects together with the joint shall be regarded as one single protected object, and high frothing outlet shall be equipped. However, if the joint is separated by a firewall with the fireproof effect of at least one hour or the interval is more than 3m, they may be not treated as a single.
(2)The output value of foam water solution of high frothing outlet shall be more than 2 L/min for every square meter of the protected area.
(3)The above-mentioned protected area refers to the area surrounded by 3 times the height of the protected object. But if the height of the protected object is less than 1/3m, then 1/3m shall be used for calculation.
Article 74
Articles 38, 44, 45, and 51~53 shall be applicable to emergency power source, piping, fittings, roof tank, pressurization and transmission test upon completion, water flow detecting device, actuating device, and deluge valve of foam fire extinguishing equipments.
Article 75
Spraying area of foam fire extinguishing equipments shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Where foam nozzle is used, each spraying area shall have a floor area of not less than 50m2 and not more than 100m.
2.Where foam water nozzle is used, the spraying area shall account for 1/3 or more of the floor area and not less than 200m2. However, where the floor area is less than 200m2, the spraying area shall be calculated pursuant to the actual floor area.
Article 76
Water source for foam fire extinguishing equipments shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Where foam nozzle is used, the minimum output value calculated under Article 72 shall be able to ensure spraying continuously in the largest foam spraying area for more than 20 minutes.
2.Where high frothing outlet is used, the output value shall comply with the following:
(1)Where total flooding is employed, foam water solution of the protected area of the maximum floorslabs shall be calculated following the table below and if the protected area hasn’t be equipped with lock device, the solution shall be added by the volume of the leakage foam:
┌────────────┬─────────────────┐
│Type of expansion ratio │Value of foam water solution for │
│ │every cube of the cubage covered │
│ │by foam (m3) │
├────────────┼─────────────────┤
│Type I │ 0.04 │
├────────────┼─────────────────┤
│Type II │ 0.013 │
├────────────┼─────────────────┤
│Type III │ 0.008 │
└────────────┴─────────────────┘
(2)Where local application is used, the minimum output value calculated under Article 73 shall be able to ensure spraying continuously in the largest foam spraying area for over 20 minutes.
3.The capacity of water source for moveable foam fire extinguishing equipments shall be more than the output value of two foam sprinklers simultaneously discharging for 15 consecutive minutes.
The solution calculated under the previous Article 76.2(1) and (2) shall be added by the foam amount to fill the pipe and 20% of total foam water solution.
Article 77
Water source equipped under Article 76 shall be connected to water pressurization and driving device.
Where fire pump is used as the pressurization and driving device for water sources as described in 76.1 and 2, water output and discharging pressure shall meet the following requirements and emergency power source shall be connected.
1.Water output: two times the minimum output value of the largest foam spraying area where there are two ore more spraying areas.
2.Discharging pressure: shall enable each water fog nozzle in a spraying area at the farthest end of the piping system to maintain a pressure of not less than 1kgf/cm2.
3.Fire pump shall be connected to emergency power source.
Where fire pump is used as the pressurization and driving device for water source described in 76.3, water output and discharging pressure shall meet the following requirements and emergency power source shall be connected.
(1)Water output: not less than 130 l/min where there is only one foam fire hydrant box on a same floor, and not less than 260 l/min where there are two or more foam fire hydrant boxes on a same floor.
(2)Discharging pressure: shall enable each water fog nozzle in a spraying area at the farthest end of the piping system to maintain a pressure of not less than 3.5kgf/cm2.
(3)Fire pump shall be connected to emergency power source.
For the same builiding, if low expansion foam concentration is used and each floor is equipped with both fixed and movable foam fire extinguishing equipments, the piping systems and fire pump could be shared, and the output water flow rate head of the pump and the capacity of the foam concentration tank shall be applicable to the bigger one of the two foam fire extinguishing equipments.
Article 78
Storage capacity of foam raw liquid shall be calculated according to the water quantity calculated under Article 76 and the concentration ratio of the foam raw solution.
Article 79
Concentration ratio of foam raw liquid mixing with water shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Protein foam solution: 3% or 6%
2.Synthetic active foam solution: 1% or 3%
3.Aqueous film foam solution: 3% or 6%.
Article 80
Moveable foam fire extinguishing equipments shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.The spraying capacity of each foam aimer on a same floor shall be not less than 100 l/min. Where there are more than two foam fire hydrant boxes on a same floor, the capacity shall be calculated using two sprayers.
2.The spraying pressure of foam aimer shall be more than 3.5kgf/cm2 or 0.35Mpa.
3.Foam raw liquid for moveable foam fire extinguishing equipments shall employ low frothing.
4.Foam fire hydrant box shall be placed within 3m from water hose connector, and a piece of 20m-long or longer water hose and a foam aimer shall be equipped inside the box, and the box surface shall have an area of not less than 0.8m2 and be marked with “Moveable Foam Fire Extinguishing Equipments”, and red indicating lamp for fire pump running shall be installed on the foam fire hydrant box.
Article 81
Storage tank of foam raw liquid shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Liquid level gauge or metering bar obviously indicating the liquid volume shall be equipped.
2.Pressure gauge shall be attached for those who are pressurized at other times.
3.Tank shall be located in places where the temperature is less than 40℃ without direct sunshine.
4.Effective shockproof measures shall be taken.
Section 6 Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Equipments
Article 82
Any of the following spraying patterns may be selected for carbon dioxide fire extinguishing equipments pursuant to the actual circumstance:
1.Total flooding: in areas separated by wall, column, floorslabs or ceiling made of inflammable materials, quantity and location of nozzle and spraying amount shall be able to ensure effective fire extinguishing pursuant to the cubage of the area and the characteristics of the protected object. The opening shall be equipped with automatic closing device unless the leakage at the opening can be made up effectively.
2.Local application: nozzles shall be equipped pursuant to the shape, construction, quantity and property of the protected objects, and the number, location and spraying volume of nozzles shall be able to ensure effective fire extinguishing.
3.Moveable application: the horizontal distance from leather pipe connector to any part of the protected object is not more than 15m.
Article 83
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing equipments shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Necessary quantity of fire extinguishing medium for total flooding shall be calculated following the table below:
┌──────┬───────┬───────────────┐
│ Place │Telecommunica-│ Others │
│ │tion machine ├───┬───┬───┬───┤
│ │room, telepho-│<50m3│50m3≦ │150m3 │≧1500│
│ │ne exchanger │ │C<150 │≦C< │m3 │
│ │room │ │m3 │1500m3│ │
├──────┼───────┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│Quantity of │ 1.2 │ 1.0 │ 0.9 │ 0.8 │ 0.75│
│Fire extin- │ │ │ │ │ │
│guishing │ │ │ │ │ │
│medium for │ │ │ │ │ │
│every cube │ │ │ │ │ │
│of the pro- │ │ │ │ │ │
│tected area │ │ │ │ │ │
│(kg/m3) │ │ │ │ │ │
├──────┼───────┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│Additional │ 10 │ 5 │ 5 │ 5 │ 5 │
│quantity of │ │ │ │ │ │
│fire extin- │ │ │ │ │ │
│guishing │ │ │ │ │ │
│medium for │ │ │ │ │ │
│every square│ │ │ │ │ │
│meter of the│ │ │ │ │ │
│opening area│ │ │ │ │ │
│(kg/m2) │ │ │ │ │ │
├──────┼───────┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│Basic quant-│ │ │ 50 │ 135 │ 1200│
│ity of fire │ │ │ │ │ │
│extinguish- │ │ │ │ │ │
│ing medium │ │ │ │ │ │
└──────┴───────┴───┴───┴───┴───┘
2.Quantity of fire extinguishing medium for local application shall meet the following requirements:
(1)Where flammable solid or flammable liquid is stored in containers with upper openings and flame is limited to one side and the flammable substance is unlikely to fly out of the container in case of fire, the required quantity of fire extinguishing medium shall be 13kg every square meter of the surface area of the protected subject. When the side length of the protected object is less than 0.6m, 0.6m shall be used for calculating the surface area. The multiple for additional quantity shall be 1.4 for high-pressure type and 1.1 for low-pressure type.
(2)As for protected objects other than described in the former subclause, the required quantity shall be equal to the quantity for unit cubage calculated using the formula below multiplied by the cubage of the protected space (refers to the space 0.6m from any point of the protected object, also named imagined protected space).
Q = 8–6xa/A
Where, Q is the quantity of fire extinguishing medium for unit cubage of the protected space (kg/m3), the multiple for additional quantity shall comply with the former subclause; a is the total area of the actual walls around the protected object (m2), and A is the total area of the imagined walls around the protected space (imaged protected space) (m2).
3.Where moveable application is used, the quantity of fire extinguishing medium necessary for each spraying aimer shall be not less than 90kg.
4.Where total flooding or local application is used and there are two or more protected areas or protected objects, the maximum quantity of fire extinguishing medium shall be regarded as the necessary quantity.
Article 84
Nozzles for total flooding or local application shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Nozzles set for total flooding shall be able to make the sprayed medium quickly and evenly distributed into the whole protected area.
2.Spraying pressure of carbon dioxide nozzles shall be more than 14kgf/cm2 or 1.4Mpa where the fire-extinguishing medium is stored at normal temperature, and more than 9kfg/cm2 or 0.9Mpa where the medium is stored at less than 18℃.
3.Where total flooding is used, the quantity of fire extinguishing medium calculated pursuant to 83.1 shall be sprayed out in specified times following the table below:
┌──────┬──────────────────┬────┐
│Place │Telecom machine room, telephone │ Others │
│ │exchanger room │ │
├──────┼──────────────────┼────┤
│Time (min) │ 3.5 │ 1 │
└──────┴──────────────────┴────┘
4.The effective range of nozzles for local application shall cover all surfaces of the protected objects, and the locations shall ensure the flammable substance will not fly outside due to the spraying of the extinguishing medium.
5.The quantity of fire extinguishing medium for local application calculated under Article 83.2 shall be sprayed out in 30 seconds.
Article 85
Where total flooding or local application is used, the venting devices inside the protected area shall stop running before the extinguishing medium is sprayed.
Article 86
Where total flooding is used, the opening part of the protected area shall meet the following requirements:
1.The opening may not be located toward safety stairway, special safety stairway, emergency elevator hoistway or other similar places.
2.The proportion of the opening under 1/3 of the height above the floor shall be automatically closed before extinguishing medium is sprayed.
3.In telecom machine rooms, the total area of the opening without automatic closing device shall be not more than 1% of the area of the casing walls. In other places, it shall be not more than 10% of the smaller of the cubage value of the protected area and the area of the casing walls.
The above-mentioned area of the casing walls refers to the total area of walls, floor and ceiling within the protected area.
Article 87
Containers of fire extinguishing medium shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Filling ratio shall be more than 1.5 and less than 1.9 for high-pressure type, and more than 1.1 and less than 1.4 for low-pressure type.
2.Storage places shall comply with the following:
(1)Outside the protected area.
(2)In places where the temperature is lower than 40℃ and seldom varies.
(3)May not be placed in direct sunshine or rain.
3.Safety device for container shall comply with National Standard CNS No.11176.
4.Valve for high-pressure container shall comply with National Standard CNS No.10848 and No.10849.
5.Low-pressure container shall be equipped with hydrograph and pressure gauge, and pressure alarm device making alarm when pressure is higher than 23kgf/cm2 or 2.3Mpa or lower than 19kgf/cm2 or 1.9Mpa.
6.Automatic refrigerating unit shall be equipped in low-pressure container to maintain the internal pressure at over -20℃ and below -18℃.
7.The device to control the valve of storage container shall be equipped pursuant to following provisions:
(1)The device to control the container valve can be operated manually.
(2)Where the electromagnetic valve is applied to start the container valve, two such valves or more shall be equipped if the containers to be opened are more than 7 sets.
2.Effective quakeproof measures shall be applied.
The filling ratio mentioned in 87.1 refers to the ratio of container cubage (liter) to weight of liquefied gas (kg).
Article 88
Where gas-actuated is used for CO2 fire extinguishing equipment, the following provisions shall be observed:
1.Container of actuating gas shall be able to endure a pressure of 250kgf/cm2 or 25Mpa.
2.Container of actuation gas shall have a cubage of over 1 liter; the weight of contained carbon dioxide more than 0.6kg, and the filling ratio more than 1.5.
3.Safety device and valve for container of actuating gas shall comply with National Standard CNS No.11176.
4.Container of actuating gas cannot be used for auto stopping in the protected area at the same time.
Article 89
Piping of carbon dioxide fire extinguishing equipments shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.It shall be used dedicatedly and the diameter shall be determined according to the spraying output of nozzles.
2.Seamless steel pipe complied with National Standard CNS No.4626 shall be employed, wherein the thickness or strength shall be the same as or higher than that of pipe number SCH80 for high-pressure type and SCH40 or above for low-pressure type, and anticorrosive treatment like zincing etc shall be made.
3.Where copper pipe is used, the copper pipe shall be made of the copper or seamless copper alloys pipes that comply with National Standard CNS No.5127 or those have the same or higher strength, wherein high-pressure type shall be able to endure a pressure of more than 165kgf/cm2 or 16.5Mpa and low-pressure type more than 37.5kgf/cm2 or 3.75Mpa.
4.Pressure endurance of pipe connector and valves shall be more than 165kgf/cm2 or 16.5Mpa for high-pressure type and more than 37.5kgf/cm2 or 3.75Mpa for low-pressure type, and anticorrosive treatment like zincing etc shall be made.
5.Drop height between highest matching pipe and lowest matching pipe shall be less than 50m.
Article 90
Selector valve shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Where there are two or more protected areas or objects on a same floor and the storage container is shared by the areas or objects, each shall be equipped with a selector valve.
2.Selector valve shall be placed outside the protected areas.
3.“Selector Valve” and corresponding protected area or object shall be marked obviously.
4.Where storage container and nozzles are equipped with selector valve, safety device or breaking plate shall be installed for matching pipe between container and selector valve.
Article 91
Manual and automatic actuating device shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Manual actuating device shall meet the following requirements:
(1)Manual actuating device shall be installed outside the protected area where the area can be seen clearly and operator can easily leave away after operation.
(2)Each protected area or object shall be equipped with a set of manual actuating device.
(3)Operating part shall be located 0.8~1.5m above the floor.
(4)The shell shall be painted red.
(5)Where actuating device is electrically actuated, a power indicating lamp shall be equipped.
(6)Operating switch or tie rod shall give out alarm sound on operation and be equipped with effective protection device made of transparent plastic.
(7)Name of protected area, operation guide and safety precaution shall be marked nearby.
2.Automatic actuating device shall be inductively interlocked with fire detector.
The above-mentioned actuating device shall be equipped with automatic & manual switching device pursuant to the following provisions:
(1)Placed at positions convenient for operation.
(2)Manual and automatic indicating lamp shall be equipped.
(3)Changeover key or tie rod shall be used to perform switching between auto and manual.
(4)Operation guide shall be marked nearby the switching device.
Article 92
Sound alarm device shall be established pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Alarm shall be made automatically after the manual or automatic device is operated, and may not stop before the extinguishing medium is sprayed out completely.
2.Alarm sound shall be effectively made heard by all the people inside the protected area or object.
3.Sound alarm device used in a total flooding area shall employ human voice, unless there is no person on watch at other times.
Article 93
Safety device for total flooding shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.A time delay not less than 20sec shall be provided between the motion of the switch or tie rod of actuating device and the opening of the valve of storage container.
2.Spraying indicating lamp shall be installed at the gateway of the protected area or other proper locations where it is easy to distinguish the lamp.
Article 94
In protected areas using total flooding or local application, the sprayed fire-extinguishing medium shall be discharged to the safety places according to the following provisions:
1.Any of the following discharging patterns may be selected, and the medium shall be sprayed out in an hour.
(1)Where mechanic discharging is used, exhaust blower shall be used dedicatedly and have a discharge capability of 5times/hour. But it may be shared by other equipments if this doesn’t encumber exhaust.
(2)Where natural discharging is used, there shall be an openable opening. The part of the opening toward the outside air (limited to the proportion of the protected area under 2/3 of the height above the floor) shall occupy not less than 10% of the floor area of the protected area, and it shall be easy for the fire extinguishing medium to diffuse.
2.Operating switch of discharging device shall be installed outside the protected area at the location convenient for operation, and indicating shall be equipped nearby.
3.There shall be no remains of fire extinguishing medium that is discharged out the door.
Article 95
Emergency power source used for total flooding and local application shall employ self-use generating equipments or battery, the capacity of which shall be able to ensure effectively running for at least 1 hour.
Article 96
In addition to 87.1, 87.2(2) and (3), 87.3 and 87.4, the following provisions shall be applicable to moveable application:
1.Valve of storage container may be switched manually at the opening of leather pipe.
2.Storage containers shall be equipped separately at the locations where leather pipes are installed.
3.Red indicating lamp shall be equipped and “Moveable Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Equipments” shall be marked nearby each storage container.
4.The equipments shall be placed where it is unlikely to be covered by fume in case of fire.
5.The quantity of fire extinguishing medium sprayed by each aimer shall be not less than 60kg/minute at 20℃.
6.Leather pipe, nozzle head and pipe carrier of moveable carbon dioxide fire extinguishing equipments shall comply with National Standard No.11177.
Article 97
Specifications of nameplates used by carbon dioxide fire extinguishing equipments will be prescribed otherwhere by the central fire agency.
Section 7 Dry Chemicals Fire Extinguishing Equipments and Simple Automatic Fire Extinguishing
Article 98
Articles 82, 85, 86, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, and 97 shall govern the spraying pattern, venting device, opening of protected area, selector valve, actuating device, voice alarm device, safety device, emergency power source and indication specifications for dry chemicals fire extinguishing equipments.
Article 99
Quantity of dry chemicals extinguishing medium shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Quantity of fire extinguishing medium required by total flooding shall be calculated following the table below:
┌─────┬─────┬──────┬─────┬─────┐
│Type of │Type I │Type II │Type III │Type IV │
│dry │ (major │ (Major │ (Major │ (Major │
│chemicals │ingredient│ingredient:│ingredient│ingredient│
│ │:sodium │Potassium │: ammonium│: │
│ │bicarbo- │bicarbonate │dihydrogen│potassium │
│ │nate) │) │phosphate │bicarbo- │
│ │ │ │) │nate and │
│ │ │ │ │urea chem-│
│ │ │ │ │icals) │
├─────┼─────┼──────┼─────┼─────┤
│Quantity │ 0.6 │ 0.36 │ 0.36 │ 0.24 │
│required │ │ │ │ │
│by every │ │ │ │ │
│square │ │ │ │ │
│meter of │ │ │ │ │
│protected │ │ │ │ │
│area │ │ │ │ │
│ (kg/m2) │ │ │ │ │
├─────┼─────┼──────┼─────┼─────┤
│Additional│ 4.5 │ 2.7 │ 2.7 │ 1.8 │
│quantity │ │ │ │ │
│for every │ │ │ │ │
│square │ │ │ │ │
│meter of │ │ │ │ │
│opening │ │ │ │ │
└─────┴─────┴──────┴─────┴─────┘
2.Quantity of fire extinguishing medium required by local application shall comply with the following provisions:
(1)Where flammable solid or flammable liquid is stored in containers with upper openings and flame is limited to one side and the flammable substance is unlikely to fly out of the container in case of fire, the required quantity of fire extinguishing medium shall calculated following the table below:
┌─────────┬─────┬───────┬──────┐
│Type of fire │Type I dry│Type II or III│ Type IV dry│
│extinguishing │chemicals │dry chemicals │ chemicals │
│medium │ │ │ │
├─────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┤
│Quantity required │ 8.8 │ 5.2 │ 3.6 │
│by every square │ │ │ │
│meter of protected│ │ │ │
│object (kg/m2) │ │ │ │
├─────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┤
│Multiple for addi-│ 1.1 │ 1.1 │ 1.1 │
│tional quantity │ │ │ │
├─────────┼─────┴───────┴──────┤
│Remark │Where side length of protected object is│
│ │less than 0.6m, 0.6m shall be used as │
│ │side length for area calculation. │
└─────────┴────────────────────┘
(2)As for places other than described in the former subclause, the required quantity of fire extinguishing medium shall be the quantity for unit protected space calculated following the formula below multiplied by the cubage of the protected space (refers to the space 0.6m from any point of the protected object, also named imaginary protected space). However, if used in telecom machine room, the quantity shall be multiplied by 0.7.
Q=X–Yxa/A
Where, Q is the quantity of fire extinguishing medium for unit cubage of the protected space (kg/m3), the multiple for additional quantity shall comply with the former subclause; a is the total area of the actual walls around the protected object (m2), and A is the total area of the imagined walls around the protected space (imaged protected space) (m2).
Values of X and Y shall comply with the table below:
┌─────────┬─────┬───────┬──────┐
│Type of fire exti-│Type I dry│Type II or III│Type IV dry │
│nguishing medium │chemicals │dry chemicals │chemicals │
├─────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┤
│ X │ 5.2 │ 3.2 │ 2.0 │
├─────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┤
│ Y │ 3.9 │ 2.4 │ 1.5 │
└─────────┴─────┴───────┴──────┘
3.Where moveable application is used, the quantity of fire extinguishing medium required by each spraying aimer shall be not less than the corresponding value in the table below:
┌─────────┬─────┬───────┬──────┐
│Type of fire exti-│Type I dry│Type II or III│Type IV dry │
│nguishing medium │chemicals │dry chemicals │chemicals │
├─────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┤
│Quantity of fire │ 8.8 │ 5.2 │ 3.6 │
│extinguishing │ │ │ │
│medium (kg) │ │ │ │
└─────────┴─────┴───────┴──────┘
4.Where total flooding or local application is used and there are two or more protected areas or objects inside a same building, the quantity of the largest area shall be regarded as the required quantity.
Article 100
Nozzles for total flooding and local application shall meet the following requirements:
1.Nozzles equipped for total flooding shall be able to make the sprayed medium quickly and evenly distributed into the whole protected area.
2.Spraying pressure of dry chemicals nozzles shall be more than 1kgf/cm2 or 0.1Mpa.
3.The quantity of fire extinguishing medium calculated pursuant to 99.1 or 99.2 shall be sprayed out in 30 seconds.
4.The effective range of nozzles equipped for local application shall cover all surfaces of the protected objects, and the locations shall ensure the flammable substance will not fly outside due to the spraying of the extinguishing medium.
Article 101
Only Type III dry chemicals may be used as fire extinguishing medium for indoor parking areas.
Article 102
Storage container of fire extinguishing medium shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Filling ratio shall comply with the table below:
┌─────────┬─────┬───────┬──────┐
│Type of fire exti-│Type I dry│Type II or III│Type IV dry │
│nguishing medium │chemicals │dry chemicals │chemicals │
├─────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┤
│Filling ratio (R) │0.85≦R │1.05≦R≦1.75 │1.5≦R≦2.5 │
│ │≦1.45 │ │ │
└─────────┴─────┴───────┴──────┘
2.Storage containers shall be placed pursuant to the following provisions:
(1)Outside the protected area
(2)In places where the temperature is lower than 40℃ and seldom varies.
(3)May not be placed in direct sunshine or rain.
3.Storage container shall be obviously marked with the quantity and type of the filled extinguishing medium, as well as maximum working pressure (pressurized type only), date of production, and manufacturer.
4.Safety device complied with National Standard CNS No.11176 shall be equipped for the container.
5.Container valve complied with National Standard CNS No.10848 and No.10849 shall be equipped for pressure-maintaining container with an internal pressure more than 10kgf/cm2 or 1Mpa.
6.Discharging device shall be equipped for discharging residual gas in storage container, and washing device for dealing with residual extinguishing medium in matching pipe.
7.Effective quakeproof steps shall be applied.
Article 103
Container of pressurizing gas shall be located nearby and reliably connected to storage container, and container valve and safety device complied with CNS No. 11176 shall be equipped.
Article 104
Container of pressurizing or pressure-maintaining gas shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Pressurizing or pressure-maintaining gas shall employ nitrogen or carbon dioxide.
2.Where nitrogen is used as pressurizing gas, the quantity of nitrogen required by every kilogram of dry chemicals shall be 40 liters or more when temperature is 35℃ and air pressure (gauge pressure) is 0kg/cm2 or 0Mpa. Where carbon dioxide is used as pressurizing gas, the quantity of carbon dioxide required by every kilogram of dry chemicals shall be 20 grams or more.
3.Where nitrogen is used as pressure-maintaining gas, the quantity of nitrogen required by every kilogram of dry chemicals shall be more than 10 liters plus the quantity required for washing the piping when temperature is 35℃ and air pressure (gauge pressure) is 0kg/cm2 or 0Mpa. Where carbon dioxide is used, the quantity of carbon dioxide required by every kilogram of dry chemicals shall be not less than 20 grams plus the quantity required for washing the matching pipe.
4.Gas used for washing the pipe shall be stored in different container.
5.Effective quakeproof steps shall be applied.
Article 105
Piping and valves of dry chemicals fire extinguishing equipments shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Piping
(1)It shall be used dedicatedly and its diameter shall be determined according to the amount of spraying amount of nozzles.
(2)Steel pipe, which is complied with National Standard CNS No. 6445 and has been anti-corrosive treated or has the same or higher strength and corrosion endurance, shall be employed, but seamless steel pipe complied with National Standard CNS No. 4626, wherein the thickness or strength is the same as or higher than that of pipe number SCH40 and anticorrosive treatment like zincing etc has been made, shall be used for pressure-maintaining type when the pressure is more than 25kg/cm2 or 0.25Mpa and less than 42kg/cm2 or 4.2Mpa.
(3)Where copper pipe is used, the copper pipe shall comply with National Standard CNS No. 5127 or have the same or higher strength, and be able to endure a pressure at least 1.5 times the adjustment pressure or the highest pressure.
(4)Drop height between highest matching pipe and lowest matching pipe shall be less than 50m.
(5)Matching pipes shall be distributed evenly so as to ensure the same spraying pressure of each nozzle when spraying at the same time.
(6)Effective quakeproof steps shall be applied.
2.Valves
(1)Valve shall comply with National Standards CNS or have the same or higher strength and corrosion endurance, and anti-corrosion treatment shall have been made.
(2)Location and direction of switch shall be marked.
(3)Manual operating part of relief valve and container valve of pressurizing gas shall be located in safe and accessible places.
Article 106
The distance between any part of the matching pipe of dry powder fire extinguishing equipments from storage container and the bending part shall be 20 times the pipe diameter or more, unless effective measures have been taken to make the dry chemicals never separated from pressurizing or pressure-maintaining gas.
Article 107
Pressure regulating device, which can adjust the pressure to under 25kgf/cm2 or 2.5Mpa, shall be equipped for dry chemicals fire extinguishing equipments.
Article 108
Pressure setting device for pressurized dry powder fire extinguishing equipments shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Relief valve shall be opened when the pressure of storage container meets the set value after actuating device is actuated.
2.Each storage container shall be equipped with pressure setting device.
Article 109
Pressure-maintaining dry chemicals fire extinguishing equipments shall be equipped with pressure gauge indicating the range of working pressure in green.
Article 110
Where gas-actuated type is used, the following provisions shall be observed:
1.Container of actuating gas shall be able to endure a pressure of 250kgf/cm2 or 25Mpa.
2.Container of actuating gas shall have a cubage more than 0.27 liter; the weight of contained gas over 145g, and the filling ratio not less than 1.5.
3.Safety device and container valve for container of actuating gas shall comply with National Standard CNS No.11176.
4.Container of actuating gas cannot be used for auto stopping in the protected area at the same time.
Article 111
Moveable application shall comply with the following provisions in addition to Articles 102.1, 102.2 (2) and (3), 102.3 and 102.4.
1.Valve of storage container may be switched manually at the opening of leather pipe.
2.Storage containers shall be equipped separately at the locations where leather pipes are installed.
3.Red indicating lamp shall be equipped and “Moveable Dry Chemicals Fire Extinguishing Equipments” shall be marked nearby each storage container.
4.The equipments shall be placed where it is inaccessible for fume in case of fire.
5.The quantity of fire extinguishing medium sprayed by each aimer shall comply with the table below:
┌─────────┬─────┬───────┬──────┐
│Type of fire exti-│Type I dry│Type II or III│Type IV dry │
│nguishing medium │chemicals │dry chemicals │chemicals │
├─────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┤
│Quantity sprayed │ 45 │ 27 │ 18 │
│every minute │ │ │ │
│(kg/min) │ │ │ │
└─────────┴─────┴───────┴──────┘
6.Leather pipe, nozzle and pipe carrier of moveable carbon dioxide fire extinguishing equipments shall comply with National Standard No.11177.
Article 111-1
Simple automatic fire extinguishing equipments shall be installed based on following regulations.
1.Smoke-discharging pipe should equip with sensor and sprinkler depending on the sectional area, alarming length and wind speed. The equipped number, location and emitting amount should be effectively enough to extinguish fire.
2.When wind speed inside smoke-discharging pipe exceed 5 meter per second, a chemical agent releasing mechanism and linked shutting valves should be installed outside alarming length. Such installation is not required if fire can be effectively extinguished without said valves.
3.Effective range of sprinkler should cover fume hood and smoke-discharging pipe, and the installed location should preclude the possibility for the inflammables to release upon emission of chemical agent.
4.Sprinklers within the range of protection should synchronously emit.
5.Storage cylinders and pressurized gas cylinders should be stored at the ambient temperature below 40C.
Alarming length prescribed in Item (2) of above 5 meters within connecting point between fume hood and smoke-discharging pipe.
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