Part 3 Fire Safety Equipments
Chapter 4 Necessary Equipments for Fire Rescue
Section 1 Connecting delivery pipe
Hose connection and fire department connection shall be installed comforming to the following:
1.A hose connection shall be installed in every floor level of underground buildings, and on every floor from the third floor upwards of other buildings in stairway, or vestibules of emergency elevators (including the area within a 5-meter radius of the aforesaid location accessible to firefighters during a fire). Moreover, the hose connection of each floor level shall be within a 50-meter radius from any point of the floor.
2.The hose connection shall be double-mouth type, equipped with a quick connector having a diameter of 63 mm, located at a height around 0.5 meters to 1.5 meters from the floor, and installed in the house made of 1.6mm thick steel sheets or other non flammable materials with the same or higher performance. The shorter side of the house cover shall be at least 40 cm, whereas the longer side shall be at least 50 cm. The house cover shall be marked with “Hose connection”, each word measuring at least 20 cm2. However, a single-mouth type may be used for levels from the tenth floor going down.
3.At least one hose connection for testing purpose shall be installed at proper location on the building roof deck.
4.Fire department connections shall be made easily accessible to fire trucks and located in areas without any water supply obstruction problems. The actual quantity of hose connection shall exceed the total number of standpipes.
5.Fire department connection should be double-mouth type, equipped with a female 63-mm diameter quick connector, located at a height around 0.5 meters to 1.5 meters from the floor, and marked with “fire department connection”.
6.A check valve and stop valve shall be installed at a spot near the fire department connection for inspection and verification convenience.
Matching pipes shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Dedicated pipe shall be used, and the diameter of standpipes shall be not les than 100mm. Where the height of the building is less than 50m, the standpipes may be shared by the matching pipe together with indoor fire hydrant; and the pipe diameter shall be not less than 100mm, the diameter of branch pipes not less than 65mm.
2.Matching pipes shall comply with CNS No. 6445 and No. 4626, or have the same or higher strength, corrosion resistance and heat endurance. If the design pressure of water delivery exceeds 10kgf/cm2, matching pipes complied with National Standard (CNS) No. 4626, and with the Pipe Number SCH40 or above, or having the same or higher strength, corrosion resistance and heat endurance shall be used.
3.Where there are two or more standpipes in a same buildings, cross pipes shall be equipped to interconnect the standpipes.
4.Pipe diameter shall be calculated and configured pursuant to the hydraulic calculation.
5.Matching pipes shall be enable to endure a pressure not less than 1.5 times the design pressure of water delivery, and last for 30 minutes. Where a relay pump is equipped, the secondary side pipe of the pump shall be enable to endure a water pressure not less than 1.5 times the fully closed lift of the pump.
A water hose box shall be equipped within 5m away from the water outlet in every storey above the 11th floor. One straight water fog double-purpose aimer and at least two pieces of 20m-long water hoses shall be equipped inside the box, and the box shall be deep enough to contain water hoses and aimer, and marked with obvious text “Water Hose Box”, each character bigger than 20cm2, and the surface area shall be more than 0.8m2.
The hose box mentioned above shall be made of steel sheets with a thickness more than 1.6mm or other nonflammable materials with the same characteristics.
Where the building is higher than 60m, connecting delivery pipe shall employ wet type, and the relay pump shall meet the following requirements:
1.The total head of the relay pump shall be more than the calculated value using the formula below:
Total head = water head loss by fire hose friction + water head loss by matching pipe friction + drop height + water discharging pressure
H = h1 + h2 + h3 + 60m
2.The water output of the relay pump shall be more than 2,400 L/min.
3.Manual actuating device and red starting indicator lamp shall be equipped nearby the water outlet, unless remote controlled starting can be made by the disaster prevention center and communicator is equipped for communication between the water outlet and the center.
4.Water outlet, stop valve and pressure regulating valve shall be equipped at the primary side of the relay pump, and inverted valve, stop valve and water inlet or outlet at the secondary side.
5.Roof tank shall have a capacity of more than 0.5m3, and relay tank more than 2.5m3.
6.Bypass pipe equipped with inverted valve shall be installed between inlet side matching pipe and outlet side matching pipe.
7.When the sum of shutoff head and net positive suction head is more than 170m, additional pump shall be added to make serial connection and running.
8.Devices shall be installed in the machine room of relay pump and at the water inlet for connecting delivery pipe for communication with the disaster prevention center.
9.When testing the discharging of a relay pump, the water shall be sent from the water inlet at the design pressure, and an aimer with a caliber of 21mm shall be used at the top storey. The water discharging pressure shall be more than 6kfg/cm2 or 0.6Mpa and water output more than 600 L/min. The design pressure for water delivery shall be obviously marked nearby the water inlet as shown in the figure below:
The design pressure of water delivery is calculated pursuant to the following provisions:
1.The design pressure of water delivery shall be not less than the calculated value using the formula below:
Design pressure of water delivery = water head loss by matching pipe friction +water head loss by fire hose friction + drop height + water discharging pressure
H = h1 + h2 + h3 + 60m
2.The water head loss by fire hose friction is 4m.
3.The quantity of water is 1,200 l/min for the top storey and the second top storey, and 2,400 l/min for other storeys.
4.The quantity of water is 600 l/min for the branch pipe of each aimer.
Section 2 Fire Water Pool
Fire fighting pool shall be equipped pursuant to the following provisions:
1.The effective quantity of water in the pool shall meet the following requirements:
(1)For those fire water pool equipped under Article 27.1 and 27.3, at least 20m3 shall be provided for every 7,500m2 (including the last proportion less than 7,500m2) of the total floor area of the first and the second floor.
(2)For those equipped under Article 27.2, at least 20m3 shall be provided for every 12,500m2 (including the last proportion less than 12,500m2) of the total floor area.
2.The horizontal distance from any fire water pool to any part of the building shall be not more than 100m, and the effective quantity of water shall be not less than 20m3.
3.The pools shall be equipped at locations where fire-fighting cars can approach within 2m away, and convenient for pumping water.
4.The construction shall ensure the water can be effectively pumped after the inlet pipe is thrown in.
5.Throw-in holes or pumping mouth shall be equipped pursuant to the following requirements:
(1)Throw-in holes shall be squares with a side length not less than 60cm, or circles with a diameter not less than 60cm, and covered by iron covers. Where the water inside the pool is less than 80m3, at least one hole shall be equipped; where the water is not less than 80m3, at least two holes.
(2)Pumping mouths shall have a caliber of 75mm, and equipped with female screw thread. Where the water inside the pool is not less than 20m3, at least one mouth shall be equipped; not less than 40m3 but less than 120m3, at least two mouths; 120m3 ore more, at least three mouths. The matching pipe of the mouths shall have a caliber not less than 80mm, and the height above the ground shall be not less than 0.5m and not more than 1m.
The above-mentioned effective quantity of water refers to the amount when the depth of the pool is within 4.5m under the ground except that mechanic method is used to draw water.
Where the dedicated firefighting water reservoir is equipped with a mechanical priming device, in addition to the requirements set forth in the Article 185 Subparagraph 1 Item 1 and the latter section of Item 2, the horizontal distance between any water supply connection and every section of the building structure shall be within 100 meters. The fire pump and the Water supply connection shall conform to the following:
1.Fire pump capacity and quantity of Water supply connection shall conform to the following table:
│Water Volume │Under 40 m3 │Between 40 m3 │Over 120 m3 │
│(m3) │ │and 120 m3 │ │
│Pump capacity │ 1,100 │ 2,200 │ 3,300 │
│(L/min) │ │ │ │
│Water supply │ 1 │ 2 │ 3 │
│connection │ │ │ │
│quantity (pc.) │ │ │ │
2.The total head of the fire pump shall not fall below that obtained from the following equation:
Total head = Drop height + friction loss head of piping +15 meters
H = h1 + h2 + 15 m
3.The fire pump shall be equipped with actuating device and red operating indicator near the Water supply connection. The requirement is not applicable where the pump is connected to the remote activating system of the Disaster Prevention Center, which maintains communication link with the Water supply connection.
4.The water supply connection shall be equipped with a 63-mm male quick connector, and located at a height around 0.5 meter to 1 meter above ground of base.
Indicating of fire water pool shall comply with the following provisions:
1.Throw-in holes for inlet water pipe shall be marked with “Fire Water Pool”.
2.Pumping mouths shall be marked with “Pumping mouth” or “Pumping Mouth of Fire Water Pool”.
Section 3 Smoke Control Equipments
The smoke exhaust equipment set forth in Article 28, Paragraph 1 Subparagraph 1 to 4 shall be installed pursuant to the following:
1.A draft-curtained compartment shall be constructed for every 500-m2 section of each floor. This requirement shall not apply to the venues accommodating audiences in theaters, cinemas, music halls, assembly halls, and factory buildings or similar constructions, where ceiling height is over 5 meters high, and ceiling and interior walls are constructed using Class 1 flame-resistant materials.
2.A draft-curtained compartment shall be constructed for every 300-m2 section of an underground building passageway.
3.Where the horizontal distance from any position in the compartment specified in the preceding two Subparagraphs (hereafter referred as smoke compartments) to the smoke exhaust vent is less than 30 meters, and the vent is located on the ceiling or within an 80-cm area under the ceiling, except where the vent directly leads outdoors, said vent shall be connected to a smoke exhaust duct. Where the vent is positioned under the ceiling and the depth of the draft curtain is under 80 cm, the vent shall be installed within the depth of the overhanging draft curtain.
4.The smoke exhaust vents, ducts, and other parts connected to the smoke exhaust equipment exposing to smoke shall be constructed using non-combustible material.
5.Where the smoke exhaust ducts cut across a fire compartment, a fire damper shall be installed on the intersection. The construction of the intersection juncture where the duct crosses the fire compartment shall be fire resistance rated as that of the fire compartment. Where duct passes through other floor levels, the vertical duct shall be installed at the fire compartmented shaft. Where the exhaust duct has fire resistance performance, reviewed and approved by the central regulating authority, and the construction of the intersection juncture where the duct crosses the fire compartment is fire resistance rated as that of the fire compartment, the foregoing requirement shall not apply.
6.The smoke exhaust vents shall be equipped with manual stations and detector activated automatic operating devices, and be kept closed under normal circumstances, unless being activated through the aforesaid stations and devices, or the remote operating devices. The construction of the vent blades shall allow the vents remain open and unaffected by the surge of smoke current after the vents are opened. The manual station shall be installed on a wall around 80 cm to 150 cm from the floor. Where the station is located on the ceiling, an overhanging chain or a vertical handle shall be attached to the station, and be located at a height of 180 cm from the floor. Easy-to-follow operating instructions shall be posted near the station.
7.The vents shall have opening area measuring at least 2% of the area of the smoke compartment, and allow smoke to be naturally and directly exhausted outdoors. Where a lack of such natural and direct exhaust capacity exists, a smoke exhaust fan shall be installed.
8.The smoke exhaust fan shall be automatically activated upon the opening of any one of exhaust vents. The fan shall have a capacity of 120 m3/min. Where there is one smoke compartment, the capacity shall be at least 1 m3/min per square meter of the compartment area; where there are two or more smoke compartments, the capacity shall be at least 2 m3/min per square meter, based on the area of the largest compartment. Where the fan is located in an underground passageway of an underground building, total smoke exhaust capacity shall be at least 600 m3/min.
9.The capacity of the emergency power source shall be capable of operating the equipment effectively for a period of at least 30 minutes.
10.The smoke exhaust vents that directly face outdoors and are kept open at all times, shall not apply to the restrictions set forth in Subparagraphs 6 and 9.
The term “draft curtain” stated in the foregoing Subparagraphs refers to the overhanging wall made of incombustible materials and constructed downward from the ceiling measuring at least 50 cm, or a structure having equivalent or better capacity of restricting the movement of smoke. Where such is located in an underground passageway of an underground building, the draft curtain shall measure at least 80 cm from the ceiling
Smoke exhaust equipment located in the vestibules of special refuge stairways and the emergency elevators shall meet the following requirements:
1. Where windows directly face outdoors, the following requirements shall be met:
(1)The part of a window, which contacts the fumes during smoke exhaust, shall be made of incombustible materials.
(2)The effective opening of the window shall be located above halfway of the ceiling height.
(3)The effective opening area of the window shall be more than 2m2. Where the special refuge stairways shares a same vestibule with the emergency elevator (hereinafter referred to as “sharing duty”), the area shall be more than 3m2.
(4)The window set forth in the preceding item, which is kept closed at all times, shall be equipped with a manual station that shall be installed on a wall around 80 cm to 150 cm from the floor. Easy-to-follow operating instructions shall be posted near the station.
2. Smoke exhaust and supply air duct installation shall comply with the following requirements:
(1)The smoke exhaust vents, smoke exhaust ducts, supply air intakes, supply air ducts, and other parts of the smoke exhaust equipment exposed to direct contact with the smoke shall have an incombustible material construction.
(2)Where the smoke exhaust ducts or supply air ducts cut across a fire compartment, a fire damper shall be installed on the intersection. The construction of the intersection juncture where the duct crosses the fire compartment shall be fire resistance rated as that of the fire compartment. Where duct passes through other floor levels, the vertical duct shall be installed at the fire compartmented shaft. Where the exhaust duct has fire resistance performance, approved by the central regulating authority, and the construction of the intersection juncture where the duct crosses the fire compartment is fire resistance rated as that of the fire compartment, the foregoing requirement shall not apply.
(3)The smoke exhaust vent shall be positioned at a height at least halfway up to the ceiling or higher and be connected to the smoke exhaust ducts directly linked to the outside, and said ducts shall be connected to smoke exhaust fans. The supply air intake shall be located at a height lower than halfway up to the ceiling, and said intake shall face outdoors, and have an area of at least 1 m2 (where intakes are used for shared duty, the area shall be at least 1.5 m2); or the intakes shall be connected to the supply air ducts directly linked to the outdoor, and be connected to the supply air fans.
(4)The smoke exhaust capacity of smoke exhaust fans, and supply air capacity of supply air fans, shall be at least 4 m3/sec. ( 6 m3/sec for fans used for shared duty) and shall be automatically activated upon the opening of the smoke exhaust vent and supply air intake.
(5)The supply air intakes and smoke exhaust vents shall be equipped with manual stations prescribed in Item 4 of the preceding Subparagraph, and detector activated automatic operating devices, and be kept closed under normal circumstances, unless being activated through the aforesaid stations and devices, or the remote operating devices. The construction of the vent blades shall allow the vents to remain open and unaffected by the surge of smoke current after the vents are opened.
(6)The smoke exhaust vent, supply air intake, smoke exhaust fan, and supply air fan shall be connected to the emergency power source, and power source capacity shall be enough to run the system effectively for a period of at least 30 minutes.
It is allowable that smoke control equipments are not equipped in the following places:
1.Non-living room parts of the storeys under the 10th floor (except underground storeys) comply with the following provisions:
(1)The ceiling and indoor walls are decorated with inflammable or fire-resistant materials of Grade I, and separated by fireproof door or window which can resist the fire for at least half an hour.
(2)The floor area is less than 100m2, and separated by smoke-proof walls.
2.Living room parts of the storeys under the 10th floor (except underground storeys) comply with the following provisions:
(1)Every 100m2 of the floor area is separated by fireproof wall, fireproof floorslabs, fireproof door and window and other fireproof facilities, all of which can resist the fire for at least one hour; the ceiling and indoor wall surfaces are decorated with inflammable or fire-resistant materials of Grade I.
(2)The floor area is less than 100m2, and the ceiling and indoor wall surfaces including the base are all decorated with inflammable materials of Grade I.
3.In the storeys above the 11th floor, underground floor or underground buildings (the underground floor and buildings belonging to Category A shall be excluded), every 100m2 of the floor area is separated by fireproof wall, fireproof floorslabs, fireproof door and window and other fireproof facilities, all of which can resist the fire for at least one hour; the ceiling and indoor wall surfaces are decorated with inflammable or fire-resistant materials of Grade I.
4.Stairway, elevating road of elevator, passageway, storage room, washing room, toilet and other similar parts.
5.Places equipped with carbon dioxide or dry powder fire extinguishing equipments.
6.Manufacturing factory, warehouse storing nonflammable materials and other similar buildings, and the main construction is made of the nonflammable materials.
7.Collective house, school classroom, activity center, gymnasium, indoor skating field and indoor swimming pool.
8.Other places approved by the central regulating authority.
The fireproof door and window and other fireproof facilities mentioned in 1(1) of this article shall have the heat resistance of at least half an hour and those in 2(1) and (3) of this article shall be of at least one hour.
Section 4 Emergency Power Sockets
Emergency power sockets shall meet the following requirements:
1.Emergency power sockets shall be installed in staircases or emergency elevator hoistway (including the range within 5m away) and other places convenient for firefighters to fight the fire, and the horizontal distance from any point on each floor to the socket shall be not more than 50m.
2.The power supply of emergency power sockets shall be single-phase AC 110V (or 120V), 150A, and the capacity shall be not less than 1.5KW.
3.Specifications of emergency power socket are shown in the figure below:
4.Emergency power socket shall employ grounding receptacle, and the mounting height shall be 1~1.5m above the floor. And two flush-type protecting boxes complied with the following provisions shall be equipped:
(1)The long side and the short side of the boxes shall be separately not less than 25cm and 20cm.
(2)The protecting boxes shall be made of copper sheets with a thickness not less than 1.6mm.
(3)Proper devices (L-shaped or C-shaped hookers) shall be equipped inside the boxes to prevent the receptacle plugs from breaking away.
(4)The covers of the protecting boxes shall be easy to open and close.
(5)The protecting boxes shall be earthed.
(6)The boxes shall be marked with “Emergency Power Socket”, each character not smaller than 2cm2.
(7)Where a protecting box is installed together with an indoor fire hydrant box, the former shall be installed above, and the cover of the protecting box may be opened otherwise.
5.Emergency power sockets shall be equipped with red indicating lamp on the protecting box.
6.At lest two dedicated circuit loops from the main switchboard shall be set up for each floor, and each loop may not connect more than 10 sockets. (The capacity of each loop shall enable at least two sockets to work simultaneously).
7.The above-mentioned dedicated circuit loop may not be equipped with leakage current circuit breaker.
8.Each socket shall be equipped with a 110V 15A (or above) no-fuse breaker.
9.Emergency power sockets shall be connected to emergency power supply system.
Section 5 Wireless Communication Auxiliary Equipments
Wireless communication auxiliary equipments shall be installed pursuant to the following provisions:
1.Wireless communication auxiliary equipments shall employ wave carrier coaxial cable, which is suitable for transmitting or radiating 150MHz wave or other wave frequency designated by the central regulating authority.
2.The nominal impedance of wave carrier coaxial cable shall be 50Ω.
3.Heat-resistant treated shall have made to the employed wave carrier coaxial.
4.Distributor, mixer, wave separator and other similar appliances shall employ those having waterproof connectors and little attenuation.
5.Where an amplifier is used, a battery shall be employed as the emergency power for the amplifier, and the emergency of the battery shall enable the amplifier to effectively work for at least 30minutes.
6.Wireless connectors shall meet the following requirements:
(1)They shall be located at the positions on the ground convenient for the firefighters to fetch, and in watchrooms or other places populated at other times.
(2)Where the travel distance from any gateway to another is more than 300m, at least two above-mentioned connectors located on the ground shall be installed.
(3)They shall be located 0.8~1.5m above the floor or the base ground.
(4)They shall be installed in protecting boxes equipped with 2m or longer radio frequency cable inside. The boxes shall be provided waterproof and dust proof measures, and the box surface shall be painted red and marked with “Wireless Connectors Dedicated for Fire Service”.